Tracing the Roots of Globalization and Business Principles

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I will discuss it in terms of three interrelated moments. First, it is a philosophical perspective and view of reality that is essentially postmodern, that is, it is dialogical and multivocal, asserting difference and multiplicity over singular worldviews. Third, it is an increasingly dense network of global organizations and a developing global social movement. First I address the philosophical component. Globalism announces and intensifies the sense that we are interconnected and potentially a global community, a realization to which we are led by what is termed the dissolution of the Center.

Anticolonial and postcolonial movements, and movements to assert rights and identities by Others, all speak to a shift from the asymmetrical union of Self-Other toward a nonhierarchical connection grounded in difference; that is, the binary thinking that creates opposites, where one is privileged and superior Self—Western, male, White, reason, technology and the other is subordinate or its shadow Other—colonial, female, Black, emotion, earth comes increasingly to be replaced by a recognition of the authenticity of the claims of the Other.

As the modernist paradigm can no longer control or address these claims, the Self is displaced as the autonomous center and is seen increasingly for what it is—one of a multiplicity of interacting worlds of experience, or subjectivities. Rather than systems of dominance and privilege that feature some actors who consider themselves independent and singular while others are made dependent, globalism entails the recognition that we are truly interdependent Taylor, The point is not that the values of globalism are achieving dominance; indeed, implying this would mean freezing a dialectical process.

At a second and more concrete level, we can thus think of globalism as emerging through the process of resistance, struggle, and dialogue that begins when groups that were suppressed and silenced come to voice and bring to the table different perspectives and understandings of history and experience, which members of dominant groups are called upon to recognize. Recognition, of course, is far from a given. Struggles for power and voice are met by violence and repression, as privilege does not yield easily.

Nonetheless, the world is changed by the struggles of oppressed people, as new knowledge and understandings that cannot be easily excised seep into everyday awareness and take social forms. Theorizing about Self-Other and difference would not be possible without the historical experiences through which the Other has burst onto. Globalism is part of a deep crisis that is forcing a reevaluation of the values, positions, and interests of all sides. This adds to the loss of certainty and rootlessness brought on by economics, and to potential ethnic conflicts that emerge in resistance to Others and that feed into ultranationalisms and particularly virulent forms of racism, including ethnic cleansing.

Transnational activism has a long history that includes Pan Africanism and international labor and solidarity movements, but it achieved new prominence starting in the s, with the growth of organizations like Amnesty International, Greenpeace, Doctors Without Borders, new social movements working in solidarity with Black people in South Africa, and indigenous people and women elsewhere. The more activist strains now gathered under the umbrella of the World Social Forum came into view in the s, its origins imputed alternatively to a United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the first intercontinental meeting of people against neoliberal globalization, organized by the Zapatistas of Mexico in , or the first large-scale demonstrations against the WTO, which took place in Seattle in Using the Internet and other media generated by the so-called third technological revolution Stefanik, , these movements are developing new democratic practices that undercut media control, support greater citizen involvement, and facilitate collective work by diverse and decentralized actors.

Globalization and Community Service Learning. It is time to bring this discussion back home: how does globalization relate to service-learning or, more specifically, what are the implications of its three interconnected faces for two important principles of good practice, reciprocity and meeting community needs?

Recalling that one of the characteristics of globalization is its unevenness, globalization theory should be seen not as a set of universally valid tenets, but as a framework for interrogating policy and practice and acting through the particulars of a site. The two principles are discussed in separate subsections below. In each case, I consider first the perspective of the field, which entails asking how the principle is defined and put into practice and what actual or implied purposes it serves. The discussion then becomes more critical, asking how well the principle meets these purposes.

Finally, I bring the perspective and contributions of globalization into the discussion. I find that both principles have their roots in exchange theory and suggest reconceptualizations that move us away from liberal and neoliberal notions of contractual relations among independent and self-interested individuals and toward approaches that consider human interconnectedness and global ethics.

I am not proposing that the current principles be entirely abandoned, but that in using them to inform practice that links the global and the local, we become more aware of their implications. I do maintain however that, given the historic dimensions of globalization, it is important to consider our practice and principles in its light. This section develops two main themes. The first is that there has always been, at best, only a partial fit between the concept of reciprocity and the practice it is called upon to foster.

This argument leads to the second, which proposes that the concept of interdependence is a closer fit with the aims of the field and is also more in line with the social justice and global citizenship agenda that constitutes the emergent project of globalization as globalism. The principle of reciprocity in service-learning emerges from the need to address a recurring negative tendency in the server-served relationship.

While a moral imperative seems to take center stage here, it is integrally joined to a pedagogical one: the issue is how to. Other influential writers support this position. How well does reciprocity, as a concept, serve these goals? With its focus on calculable transactions among self-interested individuals, exchange can be seen as the sister of neoliberalism.

Reciprocity is a particular kind of exchange, which, when taken beyond personal relationships to the societal level, is linked to trust and solidarity in social groups, and is thus considered an important factor in overall social integration—the glue that holds society together.

But only certain kinds of exchanges are reciprocal. In a seminal article that attempted to unpack the concept, sociologist Alvin Gouldner argues that exchanges involve rights and obligations—the obligation to give and right to receive—and that reciprocity connotes a specific kind of complementarity, in which both parties have the obligation to give and right to receive. Cultural anthropologist Marshall Sahlins adds to our understanding through a well-known typology based on the interests behind the exchange, its immediacy that is, time lapsed between giving and receiving , and its equivalence.

What obtains is a social obligation, often tinged with moral duty, to reciprocate to people with whom one has an ongoing, nonfamily- like relationship close family and clan relationships fall under a different type, generalized reciprocity, which shades into altruism. The classic example comes to mind of diamond dealers engaging bags of uncounted diamonds among one another, building and relying on networks of trust see Putnam, What does all this mean for reciprocity in the context of service-learning?

It seems fairly easy to conclude that reciprocity, as here defined, is beyond the reach of typical service-learning relationships. However, as the earlier discussion of globalization suggests, twin problems arise with this orientation. First, it is likely to be an instantiation of univocality, where the server, as the dominant pole of the relationship enacts the Self, the independent one who knows and who helps a dependent Other.

This is also. The tensions that follow must be addressed, but reciprocity is not equal to the task. What is needed is a different kind of interaction, one that emphasizes respectful listening of perspectives and histories, together with community building and possibly advocacy in an environment that acknowledges and addresses the difficult emotions and political choices that accompany these tensions, on both sides.

The important issue here, which I discuss further in the next section, is how to help these would-be partners come to dialogue and social action. The ideas of exchange and reciprocal exchange have been further developed through the concept of social capital, and what is termed bridging social capital is especially relevant for service-learning, as it refers to dense networks of exchanges and relationships that support and extend trust or generalized reciprocity horizontally across different groups and so helps develop a sense of solidarity and thus a kind of community even with strangers.

Returning to the examples of the soup kitchen and community meeting, the key would seem to be to promote multiple and ongoing interactions between students and participants in these other community-based activities, so that over time trust and generalized reciprocity can develop. This notion supports the importance of sustainable service-learning partnerships and has some merit, but omits important points. Kendall in Rhoads, is right that the absence of reciprocity is especially problematic in the context of asymmetrical power relations, which easily result in deficit conceptualizations of persons of lower status— the recipients of service, in the context of the served-server relationship and the students, in the context of the student-faculty relationship.

What is at work here is a privileging process that is normative in both elitist and meritocratic social systems, as hegemonic assumptions accord moral superiority to the socially superior, through privilege created by class, race, gender, morality, civilization, and the like. Can youth service be expected to help change these hegemonic assumptions, and if so, what principles shall be invoked to support practice oriented to this project?

This discussion brings home the fact that the principle of reciprocity is meant to be counternormative and even, potentially, counterhegemonic, as it proposes alternative ways of being and working with those who are, and are constructed as, underresourced with respect to oneself, which are meant to redress these asymmetries and foster more equitable exchanges, relationships, and communities—including the exchange of knowledge.

This seems to be what Kendall, Jacoby, Holland and others have in mind, but this is also where reciprocity finds its limits. Shifting from paternalism and charity to this version of exchange theory does not provide a solid enough grounding for the equitable and respectful relationships across social borders that characterize high quality servicelearning. In an important sense reciprocity and its related concepts remain rooted in a market accumulation process, which presses people into giving and receiving and ultimately creating social networks as a way of having more. But, as multivocality emerges from the dissolution of the Center, it calls on us to find new ways of being together, as interdependent global citizens and members of expanding communities.

Globalism reminds us of the parts of our selves that speak of our interconnectedness and interdependence, and need to be reinserted into the fabric of our lives. Service-learning must thus involve more than contractual relationships, calling for dialogue not only as an exchange of ideas but as an encounter between fellow human beings.

Service-learning educators need to promote the interdependence of partners rather than reciprocity between server and served. In support of this orientation, I propose refraining and. As used in the literature, partnerships involve more than exchange based on self- and mutual interests, and nurturing their relational aspect is an essential part of sustainability. Because I recognize myself in the other, I cannot stand by and allow the inequity continue.

Rather, intersubjectivity presses us toward interdependence because it is through others and in relationship with them that we come to know and fulfill a more complete sense of ourselves and the world. The previous discussion has already introduced most of the concepts needed to explore the principle of meeting community needs. This principle highlights the perspective of community partners, saying, in effect, that the partner who is seen as bringing valued resources to the table will not dictate the uses to which these resources are put.

As was the case for reciprocity, the principle is thus a corrective for power asymmetries: self-determination by the less powerful is a path to interrupting domination and univocality that favor the Self. This is an important point as, according to Young , self-determination is one of the markers of a social justice agenda. Emphases on voice and empowerment for students as well as the community in the definition of needs can also be placed under this umbrella.

I will return to these orientations below, as they provide some seeds for thinking about the purposes. The above does not represent a consensus, however. When uncritically applied, as is often the case Musil, , the principle also lends support to practices anchored to service provision and even charity: the community may be construed simply as a service provider or the people in a geographic locality, who identify needs for which they have a client base, and whose mediation is not questioned.

This definition of community needs is not arbitrary but derived from one of two root words for community: com-unis and com-munis Corlett, Needs here emerge through a process that seeks to identify the common good. The needs that emerge as important in such a community are derived by aggregating private interests, which are then advanced through the process of interest-based politics. As the language suggests, this is the preferred conceptualization of liberalism. Following Corlett, I will use communion for the first and remunity for the second.

I have already alluded to the problems that emerge from the liberal parentage of both principles under discussion. Globalization compounds the problem, since in its context certain needs become crucial and make it imperative to develop stronger versions of community that help to move from the language and assumptions underlying exchange and service provision, toward the language of interdependence, social justice, and global, multi-ethnic citizenship.

Communion is also not problem-free, however, given the importance of multivocality to servicelearning partnerships. There are also different definitions of citizenship here, and the one adopted should foster dialogical relationships, support communicative democracy and advance the capacity of all partners across social divisions to contribute their knowledge and resources toward public work. I will temporarily postpone this discussion, since it needs to be informed by a prior accounting of the implications of globalization for the principle of meeting community needs.

Globalization, communities and their needs. Based on the earlier discussion, it is not difficult to consider the implications of globalization for how to understand the communities with whom and for. Considering first the socio-political realm, rebuilding social connectedness and communities that support the lifeworld is itself a community need. There is a need to rebuild discursive and public spaces in local communities, which have been undermined through the combined effects of neoliberalism and time-space compression.

Also essential is the need to sustain interaction and relationships across difference, promoting new democratic practices. The call is for reconstructing participants as active citizens rather than consumers, and as self-developing human beings who are members of communities. Here is the rationale for approaches to service-learning that are inward-oriented, meaning that their purpose is to support identity and community needs of service-learning participants themselves, as well as outward-oriented—partnering with others to reach toward more inclusive and expansive communities.

Second, with specific but not exclusive reference to the political-economic level, the goal of reinserting democracy and social justice into the social fabric is also deeply implicated in the project of redressing the excesses of the neoliberal corporate agenda. Social justice, as Young conceptualizes it, involves two requirements: promoting capacities for self-development and for self-determination. I should stress that in both instances the reference goes beyond the personal and relational, addressing institutions and social structures.

A nonexhaustive list of needs to be met through service-learning that is consciously constructed as public and democratic work and as an option for social justice would include the following. First, as the communities that are served tend to include people and organizations that are poor and underresourced, a focus on neoliberalism helps explain the systemic causes of poverty and loss of resources and identify possible solutions. For instance, there. Second, the growing reach of private i. This fact reasserts the need for service-learning that stresses citizen-oriented action in public spaces, rather than defining citizenship as character education and turning students into service providers in the name of civic responsibility.

It is quite laudable for college students to engage in such activities as tutoring inner-city children in reading, but it should not be to the detriment of change-oriented projects where students join others in advocating for equitable funding for urban schools. Such action may also involve what Young terms the process of struggle, that is, engagement in a politics that insists on raising issues even though those in differing social positions may feel threatened by them and would rather leave them unattended.

Third, globalization influences the ways poverty is defined and experienced. Poverty here is not only a matter of the material and social resources a person has or does not have, but also of the capability to mobilize and use resources in ways that allow people to grow and act as they would wish to—again, the reference is to an expansive view of social justice, as defined above. For instance, people who cannot mobilize global technologies are at an added disadvantage, regardless of their absolute resources, as being marginalized from the technological revolution creates a new kind of poverty.

This adds to the imperative of seeing service-learning work as simply meeting community needs but locating the principle squarely on the ground of global citizenship and social justice. Creating public spaces for global citizenship and social justice. It is time to return to the question of community: What sort of collectivity should servicelearning invoke, that overcomes the limits of both remunity and communion, and affirmatively supports the project indicated by my subsection title?

The notion of partnership has some merit, although it needs to be rescued from its usual referent, the private sphere, and be considered a public space, in the same way that family and home are now used by some as metaphors for intersecting the public and. Barbara Holland proposes that projects that join the university and the community develop lasting, sustained relationships, described as partnerships:.

In a learning community and a campus-community partnership that works, every member is learning, teaching, contributing and discovering. All forms of expertise are valued, and we recognize that we have divergent goals, but by combining our different strengths, each of our needs will be met. In all instances, the issue becomes one of being able to connect and work together across difference. The question involves forging ways to work together that respect each participant, support their capacities, and foster their contribution to joint action.

There is a connectedness and solidarity here. But what is involved in activating them in service-learning partnerships? I believe the starting point, as both Corlett and Young suggest, is in the notion of situatedness, which means recognizing that participants are entering the field as subjects with histories, experiences, relationships, social positions, and that situatedness creates the window through which people look at the world and interact with others.

I want to look at the idea of situatedness and consider that a major task of service-learning is not forming bonds of communion but reaching for understanding across difference in ways that enable working together toward goals of social justice.

It is this understanding, I argue, that is necessary for valoriz. And it is only when we accomplish this goal that we are able to combine the situated knowledge each of us has, creating social knowledge that can be applied to our public work in common. Globalization greatly adds to the need for public spaces for dialogue, as its multiple and vastly complex problems cannot be solved by experts but require the collective knowledge of differently positioned people. Recall, however, that these same people who should work together may resolve identity and community problems as discussed under time-space compression, by returning to different kinds of fundamentalisms that essentially entail the refusal of dialogue, as Self and Other affirm oppositional binary constructs of the world in terms of evil wrongdoers and innocent victims.

The way I come to understand the other person is by constructing identification and reversibility between us, which means I am never really transcending my own experience. But we can interpret understanding others as sometimes getting out of ourselves and learning something new. Communication is sometimes a creative process in which the other person offers a new expression, and I understand it not because I am looking for how it fits with given paradigms, but because I am open and suspend my assumptions in order to listen.

There is no need to start out with shared goals and bonds. Young adds:. A condition of our communication is that we acknowledge. This means that practices that stress the rational and the calculable, as is the case with democratic. Young discusses communicative democracy as involving three modes of communication which, added to deliberation, support practices of inclusion: the greeting, rhetoric, and story telling.

Clearly, it is not a matter of instituting new practices, as they already exist, but of giving subaltern and marginalized practices an honored, respected, and legitimate public space alongside the dominant discourse modes that have traditionally looked on them with suspicion, impatience, and disdain. This will signal openness to multivocality and invite interactions that support people in communicating socially situated knowledge as a necessary contribution to collaborative involvement in community problem solving—an important aspect of global citizenship.

On the level of service-learning as global community problem solving, this orientation supports the sense of interdependence, since we become aware that alone on our own or with people we think are like us, we create a vision of the world that does not work.

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What is needed is multivocality and interdependence as a global ethic that is not based on idealistic, rose colored glasses, but on the solid understanding of a reality that stands counterposed to the singular, partial, and dark colored glasses of neoliberalism. Ultimately, I listen and engage in dialogue and storytelling not because I want to be nice but because, on so many levels, it answers my personal and our collective needs. Listening for our own deep needs and hearing the reality of the others thus becomes a central goal of service-learning.

What do I tell you, my readers, and.

2. Economic globalisation and neo-liberalism

At first, I created a list. Then I thought of two stories. Situatedness and belonging. I stand in the hallway of the school, near the main entrance, waiting for our high school partners, as I have done so many times before. A buzzer, an unpleasant ring, and the empty place is suddenly full of young people greeting, smiling, hugging, recognizing each other and being happy for it, forgetting that they are going about what we call changing classes.

I stand outside the moment, separated from it in so many ways.

And yet I smile too, comfortable with the seeming chaos, the life of it, as I did not when I first came. I will never really belong here and the bonds of trust will always need reweaving and repairing. But I have so many stories to tell, good stories and hard stories, stories of learning. These traces, these memories that are not visible to the students who throng the halls, greeting, hugging, laughing, forming communities of which I will never be a part—these memories are now part of me.

This space has become me through my experience, and over time it has changed me and the stories I tell. I do not belong here, but long-term connections have made these spaces and the people in them familiar and softened the feeling of strangeness. I care about this place and the people in it. Learning for global justice.

This is not my personal story but I did connect with it, in a strong sort of way. It is the story of a group of middle-school children and the webs of connectedness they wove with their questions and needs. As told through a new film, Paperclip, it illustrates a developing global ethics and global community, facilitated by the new media, and has implications for both the principles of interdependence and global justice. Their Web site caught the attention of a Holocaust survivor and German journalists in the Washington area. As the project became known, others got involved, and paperclips started pouring in, eventually from 49 states and 19 countries, each with the name and story of a family member who had died in the camps or, less often, survived them.

People in the town started talking, not only about the Holocaust, but also about local and personal issues. One told a story of a Black roommate in college, regretting how he had treated him. A rail car like the. A close reading of the story reveals that much giving and receiving happened in the course of the project, but my sense is that reciprocity would not help understand what makes it so wonderful and cannot help consider how to construct similarly wonderful service-learning experiences.

The students started collecting paperclips because they could not comprehend the enormity of the Holocaust and asked, out of their own need, for a way to experience it. What happened subsequently speaks of a desire to share who we are and of the powerful learning that comes when we expand our understandings and our worlds by reaching toward one another. There is giving and receiving, but not as an exchange. Instead, relationships are forged that help us understand our reality as connected to the reality of the other, that build communities to sustain the lifeworld, and create memories and traces that remind us of the needs of the world and call on us, through struggle, to work to make another world possible.

It also draws from earlier research supported by a Spencer Foundation Small Grant. On specific aspects of globalization and education, as relates to diversity, world peace, language rights, immigration, and equitable partnerships, see Banks, ; Gillespie, ; Suarez-Orozco, On the spread of neoliberal reform policies that emphasize privatization, decentralization, business partnerships and increasing inequality, see Blackmore, ;. One of its major roles is to collect data for policy development.

The IMF and World Bank were created by the major world powers in the aftermath of World War II, to promote international trade and economic development, largely as defined by and in the interest of these Northern powers. The South is not represented on these bodies. For overviews, see Isbister, The ascendancy of neoliberalism as a specific economic theory that supports development and modernization through the free market, however, dates to the s. There is also a history of resistance, the main forms of which involved delinking from the global capitalist system or attempting to negotiate dependence on it for instance, dependency theory; African or democratic socialism.

See Isbister, In Mexico, for instance, the top 10 percent income groups gained the most Stiglitz, The culture industry is increasingly able to use communications media to produce hyperreality, which evacuates cultural products of their meanings by using them in ways that reproduce only the empty appearances of an artificial reality. Market researchers are known to use psychological tests in focus groups to determine which emotions attach to their products, so as to better manipulate our buying habits. Frontline, National Public Radio, November 9, Deficit constructions are a more pronounced problem in direct or indirect service, and less so when service is constructed as advocacy.

For a discussion of reciprocity that focuses on the pedagogical relationship in service-learning, see Ramsdell Munera were those specific practices that defined the public burden of Roman citizens and therefore were incumbent upon them as citizens. Remunity relates to the cost-benefit calculus, as in remuneration. There is a huge literature on the liberal and communitarian approaches to community and an equally huge literature of critique and attempts to get beyond the binary opposites through which the two perspectives are often constructed i.

Public work is different than citizenship as charity, or community service where the emphasis is on helping the needy. London: Ministry of Health; J Glob Health. Bozorgmehr K.

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The EU role in Global Health. Brussels: COM final ; Committee on the U. S, Commitment to Global Health. The U. Stuckler D, McKee M. Five metaphors about global-health policy. Bunyavanich S, Walkup RB. US public health leaders shift toward a new paradigm of global health. Identifying interprofessional global health competencies for 21st-century health professionals. Ann Glob Health. Public health in Germany - structures, developments and global challenges.

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A brief history of globalisation

Cutting-edge education - Global Health in medical training: Prosposals, educational objectives and methodological recommendations. Bruchhausen W, Tinnemann P. Global Health in der Medizinischen Ausbildung. Dtsch Arztebl. Glaser B, Strauss A. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. New York: Adline Publishing Company; Making sense of grounded theory in medical education. Med Educ. Watling CJ, Lingard L. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE guide no.

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Kickbusch I, Ivanova M. The history and evolution of Global Health diplomacy. In: Kickbusch I, editor. Global Health diplomacy: concepts, issues, Avtors, instruments, fora and cases. Hilts P. Commentary: global health acquires a meaning different from international health. Global health is public health. Beaglehole R, Bonita R.

Global public health: a scorecard. Making progress in global health: the need for new paradigms. Int Aff. Locating global health in social medicine. Glob Public Health. Chen X. Understanding the development and perception of global health for more effective student education. Yale J Biol Med. Global health learning outcomes for medical students in the UK. Global health competencies and approaches in medical education: a literature review. Acad Med. Morrison J. Where now for problem based learning? Kitchenham A. The evolution of John Mezirow's transformative learning theory.

J Transform Educ. Horton R. Download references. The authors want to thank the participants of this study for their great support and willingness to share their knowledge and experience. We also thank Dr Elisabeth Szabo for helping with parts of the transcription. The datasets generated and analysed during the current study are not publicly available to guarantee anonymity of the participants.

The corresponding author can share further findings and secondary data products on reasonable request. SB drafted the original research question. SB and MH developed the further concept and design of the study. MH conducted the interviews and literature research. SB and MH cooperated through the analysis process. MH wrote the first draft of this paper and designed the graphics. The final draft was approved by both authors. Correspondence to Matthias Havemann. SB is professor at the department of family medicine at the Philipps-University Marburg.

He has a MPH from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and has been involved in various teaching roles and has developed and taught GH courses for medical students in the preclinical and clinical phase. Ethical approval has been sought from Ethics committee of the faculty of medicine at Philipps-University Marburg.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Overview of Definitions of Global Health. This file lists definitions of Global Health identified by our literature research. This table compares different learning outcomes and competencies of recent years to the findings of our study.

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Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background The increasing impact of globalisation on healthcare demands new knowledge, skills and attitudes from healthcare professionals. Results Our research identified three major questions: 1 What is GH? Conclusions This is to our knowledge the first study that conducts in-depth interviews with GH teachers to explore the practical understanding of GH in medical education. Background Globalisation and its impact on health In recent years the phenomenon of globalisation has received increased attention in healthcare research and praxis [ 1 ].

Global Health — Myriad of definitions? Full size image. Methods Methodology To gain a better understanding of GH from within the medical education community, we chose a Grounded Theory-based approach [ 37 , 38 , 39 ]. Sampling We followed a theoretical sampling approach aiming for purposive, maximum contrast sampling [ 45 ]. Table 1 Characteristics of Participants Full size table. Table 2 Main Categories emerging from initial card sorting after the first four interviews Full size table.

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The Commonwealth as an instrument of globalization

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  7. Globalisation involves the interplay of markets, technology and State, which are amongst the oldest and most distinctive human innovations. Exchange, the fundamental principle on which markets are organised, is known to exist in the most primitive human societies. The saga of globalisation is that of an unbound Prometheus, with surges in productivity and growth unparalleled in history as markets, technology and states are progressively freed from local demand and supply constraints. Pre-modern societies, however, were above all else defined by localism and decentralisation.

    Most people remained at their place of birth right through their lives. Migration was a one-way street to resettle in virgin territory in response to conquest, calamity or local demographic pressure. Religious experience was mostly limited to the local parish, with wider pilgrimages limited to a select few. Empires meant mostly march of armies over land, and were never transcontinental, with the notable exception of North Africa adjoining the Mediterranean.

    State power was a coalition of local power elites owing allegiance to a monarch who never had access to centralised administrative machinery.