R.I.C.O. 2: The New Regime (RICO)

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The impact of anthropogenic emissions on cloud droplet number densities is much smaller than the natural variability. For example, Chen et al. The anthropogenic perturbation to globally averaged droplet concentrations is thought to be only a few tens of percent [ Stevens , ]. Hence, when interpreted as anthropogenic perturbations, the range of values we consider is large, even if not as large as explored in some other studies like Xue and Feingold [ ], Xue et al.

Four additional simulations, one for each value of N , are also performed using the rico setup, but incorporating interactive radiation. In an earlier version of the code including the one used by SH13 , a minor bug was identified in the formulation of the sedimentation velocity. We expect these disequilibrium effects to have a small impact on the evolution of the cloud field and have not included them in our simulations.

A visual impression of the cloud field as simulated by the LES is given by Figure 1 , which suggests that the large spatial domain of our simulations allows for a realistic and complex structure of the simulated trade wind cumulus cloud field. Figure 2 shows plan views of cloud albedo for three of the standard rico simulations with N varying by a factor of three.

After 10 h, the cloud fields of all three simulations are dominated by many small clouds with relatively little evidence of spatial organization. This transition occurs earlier in the simulation for low N than for high N. The transition from a random to organized cloud fields goes hand in hand with changes in the cloud cover and the surface rain rate R Figure 3. The latter increases more rapidly with time after a few hours, particularly in those simulations for which the rain development is retarded.

Depending on N , the development of substantial surface precipitation exceeding about 0. For the simulations in which stronger precipitation develops more suddenly, there is an increase in cloud cover accompanying the development of precipitation, and a reduction of cloud cover, to values generally less than before the onset of precipitation. This final regime, with significant precipitation and a slightly reduced cloud cover, corresponds to the organized cloud fields in Figure 2. The reduction in cloud cover is easily understood from the presence of large cloud free areas.

Time series of cloud cover and rain rate for simulations of the standard RICO case, rico , with different cloud droplet number densities Simulations 1, 2, 3, and 6 in Table 1 and corresponding simulations of the moist RICO case moist , simulations 7, 8, 9, 10 in Table 1. We define the transition between the first and second regimes as the time when R is first larger than 0.

Similar behavior has been seen in previous LES studies, e. The results of our simulations will be discussed in detail in the following sections. The set of simulations includes experiments with different random seeds leading to different fluctuations in the initial condition. The simulations with interactive radiation have a very different time evolution Figure 4.

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The increase in cloud cover during the transition regime is missing in the irad simulations compared to the corresponding rico simulations. In addition, the simulations with higher N develop precipitation much earlier than their rico counterparts, i. With interactive radiation, the model obviously develops rain much more readily, a point we return to in section 6. The timescale for this approach to stationarity depends in general on the development of precipitation, although this dependence is weaker when radiative cooling interacts with the local environment.

Although a small effect cannot be ruled out, the lack of a strong effect is consistent with physical arguments developed in the remainder of this paper. In the classical formulation of RCE, convective heating balances radiative cooling of the atmosphere while precipitation balances evaporation at the surface [ Ramanathan and Coakley , ]. In SRCE shallow, rather than deep, convection predominates. In strict RCE, M would only contain the evaporative component, and would be zero. For the RICO case, wherein the subsidence profile is artificially decoupled from the state of the layer so that it remains constant above a certain height the stationarity relationship, equation 2 , becomes a little more complicated, but does not fundamentally change its character.

Equation 2 shows that in stationarity the rain rate depends on the moistening rate and the amount of integrated total water in the domain. For most of the simulations, the actual rain rate is close to the value expected for stationarity. Only for the simulations with large values of N , which have the most delayed approach to stationarity do deviations from stationarity become apparent. Another striking result of Figure 5 is that the equilibrium rain rate increases with increasing drop number, and this is shown robustly by the different sets of simulations.

Based on the budget analysis as expressed by equation 2 , one can speculate whether or not in stationarity the mean state adjusts to the present precipitation rate, i. Physically it is hard to imagine how the increase in Q , which is necessary for the high N simulations to come into stationarity, would not lead to R eq also increasing. More rapid deepening of the cloud layer in the approach to stationarity is expected to mix more warm and dry air to the surface, thereby increasing latent heat fluxes, i.

The increase in the surface evaporation that accompanies an increase in N also follows from bulk formula which parameterizes surface fluxes. As q sfc is a fixed surface value at an SST of As shown in Table 2 , the average wind speed does not change with N , but q 1 does. The bulk arguments in section 4 suggest that the equilibrium rain rate should increase and relative humidity decrease, with increasing N. In this section, we further explore the mechanisms by which this balance is struck. An increased cloud droplet number density makes collisional processes among droplets less efficient and thus delays the onset of rain.

Clouds in which the rain onset is sufficiently delayed will evaporate before rain develops, and thus will not precipitate. For the Seifert and Beheng [ ] autoconversion rate used in our simulations, a doubling of N leads to a reduction of the conversion rate from cloud droplet to rain by a factor of 4. Hence as N increases autoconversion increasingly becomes a bottleneck for rain formation.

As we have seen, the trade wind cumulus system finds ways to counteract and overcome this microphysical inhibition and eventually all simulations reach a similar rain rate independent from the assumed cloud droplet number density. This is expected from the bulk constraints of SRCE. The dominant response of cloud layers to larger N and a suppression of rain formation is to grow deeper [ Stevens and Seifert , ; Blossey et al. Cloud base also rises from about to m but this is a much smaller effect.

This increase in the depth of the layer through which clouds mix is associated with an increase in cloud cover throughout the approach to stationarity. Instead it is systematic changes in the internal structure of the cloud layer that mark the influence of the dynamical response, i. Cloud fraction shows the typical trade wind cumulus profile with a maximum at cloud base [cf. Nuijens et al. Both the rise of cloud base height and the increase in the depth of the cloud layer with increasing N are evident.

The deepening of the cloud layer with increasing N is most apparent in the profiles of cloud liquid water mixing ratio which shows a clear maximum in the upper part of the layer. The change in thermodynamic structure with increasing N is mediated by a small part of the total cloud population, namely the deepest and most actively precipitating clouds. As N increases the shallow mode remains largely unchanged but the deeper mode gets even deeper.

Additional analysis not shown confirms that it is this deep cloud mode that produces almost all precipitation. This behavior is consistent with the observations of, e. Error bars provide the standard deviation of the time series. This implies that changes in N primarily affect the growth of the deepest and most vigorous clouds. The invigoration of these clouds leads to deeper boundary layers, as by delaying the onset of precipitation these clouds can continue to loft their condensate into the inversion and thus grow deeper with time [ Stevens , ].

Stronger updrafts are more effective in lofting condensate and deepening the cloud layer if they do not precipitate and, should precipitation develop, they can loft precipitate and thereby more effectively convert cloud water to rain. Growing deeper clouds thus offsets the microphysical bottleneck that would otherwise narrow as N increases. Deeper clouds produce higher cloud water contents and, because the SB autoconversion rate depends sensitively on cloud water mixing ratio, an increase in cloud water content can counteract the effects of an increasing N on autoconversion.

The drier subcloud layer is consistent with a more elevated lifting condensation level of the subcloud layer air, and a higher cloud base, and also explains the increase in the latent heat flux. By suppressing the development of precipitation, more condensate is lifted into the stable trade wind inversion. The evaporative cooling of the condensate in this layer progressively destabilizes it, allowing for its eventual incorporation into the cloud layer; in simulations with interactive radiation, the moister air near the inversion also cools more quickly.

This deepening mechanism is effective so long as the profile of moist static energy decreases with height, which is the case in the lower troposphere within the trades. If the moist static energy decreases sufficiently, the air above the inversion will be dry enough that upon being incorporated into the trade wind layer, even after moistening through condensate evaporation, it is drier than the cloud layer itself.

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As a result, net drying accompanies the deepening, even though through the transient adjustment the loss of condensate to precipitation is reduced. This drying is evident throughout the cloud layer as N increases and the layer deepens. Deeper layers are drier. This decrease in RH contributes to a reduction of the cloud fraction near cloud base, i.

And overall we find a small decrease in cloud cover for higher N Table 1. Some of the seemingly paradoxical behavior can be resolved by pointing out that the high N simulations are only drier in terms of RH and especially in certain height levels, like near cloud base or near the surface. In terms of integrated moisture quantities like IWV or Q , the high N simulations are actually marginally moister than their low N counterparts, i. The deepening of the cloud layer to overcome microphysical inhibition is an example of what Stevens and Feingold [ ] call buffering e.

We will see later that the decrease in RH within the cloud layer, which accompanies its deepening, adds another twist to this buffering mechanism. In the rico and moist simulations, radiative cooling is specified and held constant with height consistent with the GCSS case specifications and other simulations of trade wind cumulus.

This is a poor assumption, especially when the free atmosphere is very dry, because radiative cooling is dominated by the vertical distribution of water vapor, with maximum values where the broadband clear sky optical depth measured from the top of the atmosphere is near unity. As Figure 9 shows, the radiative cooling as calculated by the interactive radiation scheme is largest at about 2.

Strong radiative cooling localized in the upper cloud layer destabilizes the layer and invigorates convection i. More penetrative updrafts, combined with more cooling directly in the inversion as condensate evaporates and moistens this layer, accelerate the deepening of the cloud layer. Note that the profiles are only shown up to a height of 4 km, and above that we blend the total cooling rate to the value of 2. I want to start with the title of your book. Your book is about film and identity in Kazakhstan. And in the sub-title, you mentioned that it is about Soviet and post-Soviet culture in Central Asia.

How do you describe film or cinema culture? Yes, the book is about film, rather than arts and culture more broadly. But there are two caveats to this. Firstly, rather revealingly, the sub-title of the book was chosen by the publisher, and as we know of publishers preferred methods, they were interested in having a title which captures the broadest market as possible. Hence, culture was drawn in a broader sense, rather than specifically to film. Secondly, despite just the focus on film, the key findings of the book relate to other spheres of culture.

There are two broad arguments in the book. Using cinema as an analytical lens, at least in this case, allows us to interpret a wider range of constructions of Kazakh nationhood and identity — and to understand that there are countless ways in which nations can be socially constructed. Arts and culture more broadly defined can also be used in this same way to reveal the different constructions of nationhood and identity.

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The second key finding of the work is that cinema is a site which has allowed the emergence of varying levels of public dissent, satire and criticism of the regime. Again, we can observe this in other artistic forms too. The national cinema debates in the West began in the s, but were revived in the s. This period is also marks when Kazakhstan took its independence and began its nation-state building process.

What can contemporary Kazakh cinema add to these national cinema debates? I use the concept of national cinema in a particular, yet broad way, as an analytical frame.

Author Interview: Film and Identity in Kazakhstan, by Rico Isaacs (Oxford Brookes University)

National cinema is often construed as collections of cinematic works which are congruent with national boundaries. However, I adopt the concept of national cinema as a way to think about the broader context, structures and discourses which underpin the development of the film industry — and this of course includes globalising influences.

Rather, in terms of genre, financing, production, script writing and so on, there are a wide range of influences on the production of Kazakh film and cinema generally. With contemporary Kazakh commercial movies, we can point to the influence of Hollywood or Russian cinema, and with some state projects such as Nomad or Myn Bala , Soviet cinema too. With art house cinema there is a range of directors, styles and genres which influence the work of auteurs such as Emir Baigazin or Adilkhan Yerzhanov. But is there a specific cinematic language which can be construed as Kazakh or Kazakhstani?

Probably not. So, what Kazakh cinema tells us about the concept of national cinema in general is that the cinematic language of any director is the composite of their influences. Then after a brief scuffle with Panay, Rico slams him into the exposed missile interior, from which he's unable to free himself, but instead of disarming the missile, he changes the target coordinates.

Rico parachutes to safety and lands on the Agency barge with Sheldon, Kane and Jade. The missile explodes behind him, having hit the prized oil field, much to Sheldon's and Kane's dismay. Rico explains his reasons for destroying oil worth so much, to spare the innocent people in Panau from having to live in fear and poverty due to superpowers clashing over the oil, as without it, all interest in Panau is lost.

As the group sail along the waters of Panau, the four raise a glass to good deeds, friends and a job well done. Note that in reality there's no way that any nuclear-type bomb could do any damage to an undersea oil field and that any radiation would be safely absorbed and carried off by the sea.

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Porto Rico, by A. D. Hall.

In , several years after the events of Just Cause 2 , Rico leaves The Agency and travels back home to the fictional nation of Medici , located in a fictional Mediterranean archipelago, to overthrow the dictatorship of General Di Ravello. Since Rico is no longer in the Agency, he no longer wears a uniform. In fact he's wearing jeans and work boots. Sheldon explains that "Di Ravello is sitting on a ton of Bavarium , which makes him the Agency's best goddamn friend".

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Rico equips himself with weapons that he has smuggled with the help of Tom Sheldon and stunts to the roof of the plane which is now being attacked by SAMs. After defending the plane, the plane makes a vertical turn to dodge a machine gun from an attacking plane , which causes Rico to fall off. Rico parachutes down and meets up with Mario Frigo , now The Rebellion 's incompetent leader. Rico ends up saving Mario from the D. Managing to save the rebels in time, a fellow rebel says that Dimah Ali Umar al-Masri is now being attacked by the military.

Rico mounts a helicopter and saves Dimah. After that, she explains that Bavarium is in the wrong hands and gifts Rico a new grappler , Wingsuit and GE explosives. Rico then destroys an outpost and a bridge to stop Di Ravello's reinforcements from the previous mission. Rico meets Mario at his Granmatre's house for dinner, after which he liberates the town of Manaea by the command of Alessia and proceeds to liberate the nearby power plant, Vis Electra.

Rico discovers that Sheldon survived the crash while Di Ravello discovers that Rico has returned. Di Ravello fails and they fly away to safety. Rico subsequently saves the town and saves Mario. Dimah requests Rico to retrieve a Bavarium scanner from Vigilator Nord.

After retrieving it, he travels to Cima Leon: Silo to determine if Bavarium is being weaponized, after which the detector explodes due to the detection of an overabundance of Bavarium. During the mission, Rico discovers that Bavarium is heading to Tom Sheldon, who wants the detector for his own. Rico delivers the destroyed scanner to Sheldon, who in a fit of anger, smashes his glass of beer. After assisting in several battles around Insula Fonte, the Medici Military launch a Bavarium nuke to distract Rico, who instead catches up to the missile and physically redirects the missile's course to Cima Leon Central Command instead of its intended target.

Mario asks Rico to meet him urgently, but Rico is set up for a prank by a drunk Mario. He goes to Mario's actual location and the two deliver wine stolen from Di Ravello to some rebels where the group celebrate the victory. Rico is suspicious of Sheldon but goes to intercept the military ships and after defending Dimah and Mario, they meet two smugglers named Annika Svennson and Teo.

After a firefight against Medici Military reinforcements, Mario becomes critically injured, in which Annika offers Rico aid to Mario if Rico does their bidding. It is later revealed that Sheldon and The Agency had ties to Di Ravello for 20 years for a promise that Di Ravello will have an alliance with United States of America and the killing of Rico's parents was planned so Rico could be recruited for The Agency. Di Ravello is disappointed that Sheldon didn't keep his promise of an alliance with the US and starts blaming Sheldon for training Rico and his troubles.

Di Ravello tells Sheldon to not return to his palace again, and escorts Tom out of the palace. During these events, Mario recovers from his injuries, but the two hear that military forces know where they are and are going to wipe them out. The smugglers escape to "avoid suicide" but later return to help. After this they destroy another power plant.

The rebels hear that Rosa Manuela is returning to Medici, but Rico is protective and doesn't want her returning to avoid an assassination attempt, so he protects her plane , and after landing Rosa recognizes Zeno Antithikara as the mole and Zeno is imprisoned. Rosa tasks Rico to destroy a train carrying Bavarium out of Medici and Rico destroys the train. Annika and Teo ask Rico to help free their friends and after doing this, Dimah, Rico, and Sheldon stop a transport plane carrying a Bavarium bomb.

The Rebellion engages in a final battle against the Medici Military to serve as a distraction while Dimah infiltrates Falco Maxime Central Command and attempts to destroy the base tower, and with it the last half century of Bavarium research. After assisting in The Rebellion's victories in battles across Medici, Rico travels to Falco Maxime where Dimah reveals there is no other way to destroy the tower than manually directing the Bavarium missiles from the base command tower.


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Rico attempts to convince her that there is another way, but Dimah surprises Rico by firing his grappling hook at a passing jet, and proceeds to sacrifice herself to guide the missiles to the Centcom Tower. Annika and Teo track down Di Ravello in a Bavarium powered helicopter which escaped from Falco Maxime: Centcom moments before the explosion. Rico, along with Annika, Teo, and Mario travel to the last known location of the helicopter - a large volcano island off the coast of Medici. After a long battle with Rico , Di Ravello's helicopter crashes from too much damage, of which he crawls out of, determined to keep fighting.

Rico confronts Di Ravello, who monologues about how he failed Medici. Rico can either kill Di Ravello or let him commit suicide, ending his reign. Rico then travels to a nearby beach to enjoy a drink alone, in a scene similar to the title menu. Rico appears to be alive and well for the events of three years later.

Rico learns from Mira Morales that his father is apparently dead and that he had designed a superweapon for the Black Hand, called Project Illapa. Rico is confused by this because he doesn't think his father would do that. Rico doesn't initially care that the Black Hand are in charge here and also doesn't think that he needs any help. His attack on Illapa fails and he has to get help from the locals. The locals wish to get rid of the Black Hand , so this starts a rebellion called the Army of Chaos to topple the Espinosa regime. It's mentioned in one of the earlier missions that he is equipped with an AR lens - a nano-computer built into a contact lens.

And that they held power by a combination of rigged elections and lies about Otorongo , the previous ruler. Rico also finds out that Project Illapa is a weather-controlling device that's officially meant to put an end to extreme weather, like tornadoes , sandstorms , snow storms and lightning storms.

This turns out to be a lie, as the device is really meant to create weaponized controlled storms, which Oscar Espinosa reveals will eventually be pawned off. Miguel quit his job at the project and returned home to Medici. Oscar Espinosa then arranged Miguel to be killed. It's unclear who asked who precisely what, but Oscar noted that he had Black Hand units in Medici and that General Di Ravello is co-operating with the Agency. According to Di Ravello tapes , he burned down the Rodriguez household, killing the occupants, as a gift to the Agency.

Di Ravello also mentions that he allowed Rico to be taken away by the Agency. Tom Sheldon mentions in the mission Operation Thunderbarge that he was still new to the Agency at the time and didn't know the details. He had only been sent to rescue specifically Rico. They set up a raid on Zona Tres , a weather research base, and learn that the tornadoes are indeed controlled by the government as a part of Project Illapa.

The secrets of the tornado technology are revealed in Operation Windwalker. The mission Meeting Lanza Moralez reveals that Project Illapa was started by Leon Espinosa for completely peaceful reasons - to stop extreme weather. Later Oscar had ordered the project to be weaponized. This made Miguel Rodriguez quit and go home. Rico kills Oscar and destroys the project. Gabriela and a few remaining Black Hand units defect to the Army of Chaos. Tom estimates that this loss must have cost the Agency trillions. Rico is seriously annoyed with the Agency and wants to take them down. Tom and Mira join this effort.

They don't know how to do this, but Rico tells them that having an army is a good start. The radio also mentions that some factions within the Black Hand have not surrendered and continue the fight. During the development of Just Cause, Rico is depicted as the "pretty boy" of spies and of Mulatto-Hispanic heritage, described by developers as being:.

With a touch of Enrique Iglesias to top it all off! The reason for this is: " Where are Rico's measurements from? If there's no source, they'll have to be removed as speculation and fiction. In Just Cause 2, set a few years later, he's sporting a more rugged look. He's more muscular and has slicked his hair back.