Image in Outline: Reading Lou Andreas-Salomé (New Directions in German Studies)

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Social networks are important in influencing one's health behaviors. Using experimental data, this paper analyzes the effect of social networks on vaccination behaviors among women in rural Nigeria. Social networks within village, neighborhoods, and among friends all influence one's vaccination decision to a great extent. We find that the effect of a friend getting vaccinated increases the likelihood that one receives a vaccination by We additionally find that the effect of a friend receiving a vaccine on one's vaccination decision varies by the belief about vaccine safety, by the distance to a health clinic, and by the amount of cash incentives.

We find suggestive evidence that social networks matter for one's vaccination decision because peers visit the clinic for vaccination together.

Reading Heinrich Heine (Cambridge Studies in German)

Presiding : John Haltiwanger University of Maryland. Foster U. Census Bureau. Cheryl A. Grim U. Sabrina Pabilonia U. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Jay Stewart U. Zoltan Wolf Westat and U.

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Cindy Zoghi U. Productivity measures are critical for understanding economic growth and business survival in the U. However, those statistics cannot provide insight on the within-industry variation in productivity, limiting our understanding of the rich productivity dynamics in the U. To address this gap, the BLS and the Census Bureau are collaborating to create measures of within-industry productivity dispersion with the goal of developing both public-use and restricted-use statistics.

The public-use measures of productivity dispersion will include within-industry measures of the distribution of productivity for industries in the Manufacturing sector and will be published jointly by the BLS and the Census Bureau. Restricted-use establishment-level data with input, output, and productivity measures will be made available in secure Federal Statistical Research Data Centers. Why do we need measures of within-industry productivity dispersion? Results from microdata-based productivity research have changed the way we think about aggregate productivity growth, labor market dynamics, international trade and industrial organization.

There are large and persistent productivity differences across businesses even within narrowly defined industries. These differences are correlated with important economic outcomes such as the growth and survival of establishments. In this paper, we construct establishment-level labor productivity and multifactor productivity measures using microdata from the Annual Survey of Manufactures and the Census of Manufactures.

Along the way, we examine a variety of data and measurement issues including issues related to imputation and weighting of the microdata. We also compare industry-level micro-aggregated measures to BLS industry-level measures of inputs, output and productivity. Finally, we explore the variation in our industry-level productivity dispersion measures across industries and time. Kristin McCue U. Bureau of the Census. Holly Monti U. Brooks Pierce U. The notion that firms provide wage insurance to risk-averse workers goes back to Bailey Recently, Guiso et al.

Using Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics LEHD data matched to Census annual business surveys, we examine whether shocks to firm performance year to year changes in sales and value-added are transmitted to worker earnings. We examine both short-term year to year and long-term five year changes, using Economic Census data to examine the representativeness of our annual sample.

We also examine whether the extent of wage insurance varies across industries and workers at different percentiles in the earnings distribution. Matt Dey U. A large empirical literature has documented the existence of establishment wage differentials. But worker and establishment differentials are typically identified via turnover, which means that it is not possible to know very much about what these effects represent or how persistent they are over time. The OES is an establishment survey that collects payroll information i. This information allows us to identify and estimate occupation-by-establishment wage differentials, expressed as the percent difference between the prevailing wage in the market for an occupation and the wage paid by the establishment.

We then aggregate these differentials to calculate establishment-specific wage differentials. With these establishment-specific differentials in hand, we can examine their properties and determine the extent to which they persist over time. Next, we examine how these differentials are distributed across occupations within each establishment. If they are unequally distributed, then it would be hard to argue that they are true establishment wage differentials.

Existing research Lane, Salmon, and Spletzer has shown that there is a positive correlation between the wages of certain high-wage and low-wage pairs of occupations. For example, establishments that pay high wages to accountants also pay high wages to janitors. Our methodology allows us to use standard inequality measures to examine the within establishment distribution of these differentials, and relate them to observable characteristics.

Finally, we examine the persistence of establishment wage differentials for a sample of large certainty units that are in the OES sample in multiple years. James C. Davis U. Richard B. Freeman Harvard University. Recent work highlights the importance of the establishment where someone works in the pay of workers and in the growth in wage inequality among US workers Barth, Bryson, Davis, and Freeman To what extent are differences in earnings linked to the firm to which the establishment belongs and its characteristics, and to the characteristics of the establishment, in addition to the characteristics of the individual that enters the standard earnings equation?

To answer this question we combine establishment level data with data on firms using firm identifiers on the establishment files and data on employees using establishment identifiers linked to the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics LEHD to estimate earnings equations that include establishment and firm characteristics. We measure establishment-level characteristics by: the value of capital structures from buildings to equipment of different types from the quinquennial Economic Census from to ; and the average of years of schooling, age, gender, race at the establishment level obtained from the characteristics of individual workers in the establishment in the decennial Census long forms for and , and CPS for We link these firm-level characteristics to the LEHD, thus adding measures of the knowledge and physical capital of the firm to workers wage regressions.

Decomposing the variance of ln earnings of individuals, we find that both firm and establishment substantially affect the variation of earnings of workers, along with their individual characteristics. At the establishment level, the education of co-workers affects individual pay, conditional on own level of education; plant capital equipment is associated with higher wages whereas building structures have little effect. These results hold both when workers move to establishments or firms with larger amounts of the specified attributes and when they remain at the same establishment and the establishment or firm increases the attributes.

Discussants: Chad Syverson University of Chicago. Gary Solon University of Arizona. Steven J. Davis University of Chicago.

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Research in Economic Education A2. Presiding : Georg Schaur University of Tennessee. Student and team performance in in sixteen sections of an introductory microeconomic theory course taught using team-based learning are analyzed to determine what measurable characteristics of teams influence outcomes. Team success on in-class quizzes and activities and team cohesiveness are modeled as a function of diversity of class level, gender, and geographic origin, previous academic performance, and team size and class size. Individual performance is estimated as a function of individual characteristics and team characteristics, including team performance and team cohesiveness.

Results suggest that team performance is not significantly influenced by team size, class size, or the mix of class levels. The GPA of the top individual on the team is positively correlated with overall team success. Interestingly, team cohesiveness is not significantly impacted by team success. Further individual success is positively and significant influenced by team cohesiveness but not by overall team performance. Do Students Know Best? David A. Jaeger City University of New York. Hoffer University of Wisconsin-La Crosse.

This study presents the results of two pedagogical interventions — an assignment using economic data and an assignment requiring a research project and presentation — aimed at dispelling economic misconceptions that linger through a typical principles of economics course. Participants were surveyed regarding several economic facts.

Control and treatment pedagogical approaches were carried out over four academic semesters. The results suggest the combined research plus data treatment was most effective student learning about the labor force earning the minimum wage and the composition of the federal budget. Discussants: Matthew Rousu Susquehanna University. Gail Hoyt University of Kentucky. Olga Troitschanskaia University of Mainz.

Daniel Diermeier University of Chicago. Carlo Prato Georgetown University. This paper endogenizes policymaking procedures in a multilateral bargaining framework. A procedure specifies players' proposal power in bargaining over one-dimensional policies. In procedural bargaining players internalize the procedures' effects on subsequent policy bargaining. In policy bargaining players' utilities are strictly concave and order-restricted. The paper provides characterization, existence, and uniqueness results for this two-tier bargaining model.

Although the procedural choice set is multidimensional, sequentially rational procedures feature "limited power sharing" and admit a total order. In equilibrium endogenous policy and procedure are strategic complements. A dynamic game of experimentation is examined where players search for an unknown threshold.

Players contribute to the rate of decline in a state variable, and the game ends with a costly breakdown once the state falls below the threshold. In the unique symmetric pure-strategy stationary Markov equilibrium, the state decreases gradually over time and settles at a cutoff level asymptotically, conditional on no breakdown. The cutoff depends on the patience, the cost of the breakdown, and the prior distribution of the threshold, but not on the number of players. In a discrete-time version of the game, the equilibrium time path of the state converges to that of the continuous-time model when period length tends to zero.

Strategy-proof mechanisms eliminate the possibility for gain from strategic misrepresentation of preferences. If market participants respond optimally, these mechanisms permit the observation of true preferences and avoid the implicit punishment of market participants who do not try to "game the system. I present evidence that some students pursue futile attempts at strategic misrepresentation, and examine the causes and correlates of this behavior. These results inform the assessment of the costs and benefits of strategy-proof mechanisms, and demonstrate broad challenges in mechanism design.

Haoxiang Zhu Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper studies bilateral trading in divisible double auctions. In the existing literature, divisible double auctions have been applied predominantly to markets with at least three bidders, for the reason that the usual linear equilibrium implies a market breakdown if only two bidders are present. These models thus cannot describe important decentralized markets where trades are conducted bilaterally i. Examples include the bilateral trading of commodities, financial securities, and derivatives.

In this paper we fill this gap. In our model, two bidders trade a divisible asset in a double auction. The bidders 1 submit demand schedules, 2 have interdependent and linearly decreasing or constant marginal values, and 3 can be asymmetric in their preferences.

We characterize a family of nonlinear equilibria, implicitly given by a solution to an algebraic equation. These equilibria are also ex post optimal, that is, bidders do not wish to change their strategies even after they observe the equilibrium outcome ex post. If marginal values are constant, we solve the family of ex post equilibria in closed form. We show that the equilibrium quantity of trading is strictly less than that in the ex post efficient allocation. Our theory of bilateral trading differs from the bargaining literature and can serve as a tractable building block to model dynamic trading in decentralized markets of divisible assets.

This paper studies the design of reverse auctions in the US incentive auctions where TV broadcasters in the UHF band offer to relinquish the usage right or to relocate to another band to increase the spectrum for mobile communication uses. The state of the art is the deferred-acceptance auctions by Milgrom and Segal that determine allocations based on scores and are strategy-proof when sellers are single-minded.

But when sellers have multiple relinquishment options and are restricted to be single-minded, there would be possibilities of strategic considerations about which option the seller should bid. Nevertheless just allowing multiple bids is not possible since a seller switching one option to another may violate interference constraints. To resolve this issue, this paper proposes generalized deferred acceptance auctions with the supplementary phase where sellers make multiple offers, the buyer does not need to recalculate interference constraints, and are strategy-proof.

These results show generalities and robustness of incentive auctions design described in FCC and Milgrom and Segal The Economics of Violence O1, Q1. Presiding : Solomon M. Hsiang University of California-Berkeley. Nathan Nunn Harvard University. Nancy Qian Yale University. We examine the long-term effects of improved agricultural productivity on warfare. Our analysis relies on a newly constructed geo-referenced dataset on the location of conflicts in Europe, Middle East and North Africa between and Exploiting the improvement in agricultural productivity arising from the introduction of potatoes from the Americas in the late 17th century, we compare the prevalence of conflicts in regions suitable for potato cultivation with the prevalence in unsuitable regions, before and after potatoes were introduced.

Our results show that the increase in agricultural productivity arising from the introduction of potatoes significantly reduced conflict. We find that this occurred through a reduction in the onset of conflicts rather than through a shortening of the duration of conflicts. We also find that the increase in agricultural productivity resulted in the formation of larger states with control over larger amounts of land.

Jacob Shapiro Princeton University. Scholars of civil war and insurgency have long posited that insurgent organizations and their state enemies incur costs for the collateral damage they cause. We provide the first direct quantitative evidence that wartime informing is affected by civilian casualties. Using newly declassified data on tip flow to Coalition forces in Iraq we find that information flow goes down after government forces inadvertently kill civilians and it goes up when insurgents do so.

These results have strong policy implications; confirm a relationship long posited in the theoretical literature on insurgency; and are consistent with a broad range of circumstantial evidence on the topic.


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Marshall Burke Stanford University. Felipe Gonzales University of California-Berkeley. Solomon M. Edward Miguel University of California-Berkeley. Changes in climate have been shown to substantially shape intergroup violence, but the mechanism remains poorly understood.

High temperatures have a large and similar impact on all three types of violence, suggesting some commonality in mechanisms. Many patterns in the data, including the limited influence of a cash transfer program in dampening the sensitivity to high temperature and a comparison with non-violent DTO crime, indicate that government monetary incentives only partially explain the observed relationship between temperature and DTO violence.

Our results have important implications for the understanding of violence, as well as for the impacts of climate change. David Yanagizawa-Drott Harvard University. We study whether war service by one generation affects service by the next generation in later wars, in the context of the major U. Across all wars, we estimate an intergenerational transmission parameter of approximately 0. Quantitatively, our estimates imply that each individual war had a substantial impact on service in those that followed.

Instead, we find evidence consistent with cultural transmission from fathers to sons. Taken together, our results indicate that a history of wars helps countries overcome the collective action problem of getting citizens to volunteer for war service. Discussants: Suresh Naidu Columbia University. Michael Callen Harvard University. Melissa Dell Harvard University. Valuing Climate Change Catastrophes Q5. Presiding : Robert Mendelsohn Yale University. Tol University of Sussex. David Anthoff University of California-Berkeley. Contrary to the popular image, these experiments show that expected cooling in Western Europe due to a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation is similar in magnitude to the expected warming due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

As ocean currents redistribute rather than create heat, a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation would also lead to an accelerated warming in Latin America and Africa. The FUND model will then be used to evaluate the change in human welfare associated with a shutdown of the thermohaline circulation. Thomas F. Rutherford University of Wisconsin-Madison. Klaus Keller Pennsylvania State University. The Earth system may react in a nonlinear threshold response to climate forcings.

One such example is the potential disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet WAIS in response to ocean and atmospheric warming, leading to substantial sea-level rise. WAIS disintegration has been interpreted as an example of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system and been discussed as one motivation for stringent mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporating threshold responses into integrated assessment models IAMs used for policy analysis poses nontrivial challenges due to the current incomplete scientific understanding, methodological limitations, and pervasive deep uncertainties.

Here we analyze the effects of representing in a very approximate way a potential WAIS disintegration in a stochastic programming IAM with endogenous uncertainty. We identify methodological and conceptual challenges and demonstrate avenues to address some of them through model emulation as well as the representation of expert knowledge, and learning.

The results illustrate the relationships between scientific uncertainties, policy objectives, and metrics such as the social cost of carbon. We conclude with a discussion of key open challenges and research needs. Robert Mendelsohn Yale University. Starting with two alternative emission scenarios: a path of modest and a path of high emissions, this study uses climate change forecasts and dynamic quantitative ecosystem models to examine the resulting impacts on net primary production NPP, approximately equivalent to plant growth.

What do these process-based ecosystem models predict will happen to NPP, standing biomass assets , and the extent of different biomes forests, grasslands, deserts across the earth? Are these changes likely to lead to large market or non-market damages? Steve Colt University of Alaska-Anchorage. Acidification from increasing uptake of CO2 has emerged as a potentially serious threat to ocean health.

Here we assess the potential magnitude of the economic effects of an ocean acidification catastrophe by focusing on key marine ecosystem services most likely to be affected: marine capture fisheries, marine aquaculture, and coral reefs. It is scientifically plausible that by year OA could be associated with 1 Complete collapse of economically viable marine capture fisheries, 2 Minimal economic effect on aquaculture, due to high potential for adaptation, 3 Complete destruction of coral reefs, and 4 Significant loss of biodiversity and rearrangement of marine and nearshore ecosystems.

Our assessment of upper-bound values for the first three effects yields a potential loss of between and billion dollars per year 0. Discussants: William Nordhaus Yale University. James Neumann Industrial Economics. Charles Kolstad Stanford University. Presiding : Stefano Giglio University of Chicago.

Michael Siemer Federal Reserve Board. Adrien Verdelhan Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In a large panel of 26 emerging countries over the last 40 years, aggregate stock market return volatilities, our measure of uncertainty, forecast capital flows. When the stock market return volatility increases, capital inflows decrease and capital outflows increase.

Capital inflows respond to both systematic and country- specific shocks to volatility, and they respond more in high uncertainty beta countries.

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These results are all statistically significant. A simple portfolio choice model illustrates the impact of uncertainty on gross capital flows: in the model, foreigners are exposed to expropriation risk. When the probability of expropriation increases, foreigners sell the domestic assets to the domestic investors, leading to a counter-cyclical home bias.

Richard K. We document a highly significant, strongly nonlinear dependence of stock and bond returns on past equity market volatility as measured by the VIX. We propose a new estimator for the shape of the nonlinear forecasting relationship from the cross-section of returns, increasing identification power. The nonlinearities are mirror images for stocks and bonds, revealing flight-to-safety: expected returns increase for stocks when volatility increases from moderate to high levels while they decline for Treasuries.

Our findings are supportive of dynamic asset pricing theories where asset managers are subject to withdrawals that tighten when market volatility increases, leading to declines in risk appetite that manifest in flight-to-safety. Kris Jacobs University of Houston. We investigate the role of option market makers in the determination of the variance risk premium and the valuation of index options. A reduced-form analysis indicates that a substantial part of the variance risk premium is driven by inventory risk and market maker wealth.

Motivated by these findings, we develop a structural model of a market maker with limited capital who is exposed to market variance risk through his inventory. We derive the endogenous variance risk premium and characterize its dependence on inventory risk and market maker wealth. We estimate the model using index returns and options and find that it performs well, especially during the financial crisis. Eric Ghysels University of North Carolina. Ian Dew-Becker Northwestern University.

Government Policies and Markets G1. Presiding : Anna Cieslak Duke University. Mehmet Canayaz University of Oxford. Jose Martinez University of Connecticut. Han Ozsoylev University of Oxford. In this paper, we look into the so-called "revolving door of Washington", which is the movement of individuals between federal government positions and jobs in the private sector, and examine its link to long-run stock returns.

We find that firms where current public officials become future employees outperform other firms by a statistically significant 7. We also show that firms receive more valuable government contracts when a future firm employee is holding a post in the government. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a quid pro quo relationship between some public officials and their future corporate employers.

We run a battery of robustness checks to mitigate endogeneity concerns and other alternative explanations. Window dressing induced deleveraging spills over into agency bond markets and money market funds and affects market quality each quarter, and understates balance sheet based measures of systemic risk for non-US banks. Taylor Nadauld Brigham Young University. When students fund their education through loans, changes in student borrowing and tuition are interlinked.

Tuition cost impacts loan demand but loan supply can also affects equilibrium tuition costs when students are constrained in their borrowing. To resolve this simultaneity problem, we exploit unique student loan data and policy changes in the Stafford Loan Program over the past few years, as a natural experiment, to identify the impact of an increase in the student loan supply on changes in tuition. Our results indicate that institutions more exposed to changes in borrowing limits of federal loan programs raise their tuition disproportionately around these policy changes.

These effects are most pronounced for expensive, private institutions that are also not among the most selective as measured by average student SAT scores. We also find evidence of larger tuition increases around changes in the Stafford Loan Program for private for-profit institutions. Jesse Davis Northwestern University. Naveen Gondhi Northwestern University. Regulation often mandates increased transparency to improve how well prices reflect fundamentals. We show that such policy can be counterproductive. We study the optimal decision of an investor who can choose to acquire costly information not only about asset fundamentals but also about the behavior of liquidity traders.

We characterize how changing the cost of information acquisition affects the extent to which prices reflect fundamentals. When liquidity trading is price-dependent e. Discussants: Vyacheslav Fos Boston College. Brian Melzer Northwestern University. Laura Veldkamp New York University. High-Frequency Trading G1. We show in a dynamic trading model that market fragmentation, induced by an informational friction resulting from high frequency trading, may generate market instability flash crashes and deleterious welfare consequences from increased trading platform competition.

In this context an increase in the mass of dealers with continuous presence in the market can decrease liquidity and welfare. However, with transparent markets, the market is stable, and maximal market participation induces the highest levels of liquidity and welfare. Mark Van Achter Erasmus University.

In recent years, technological innovations and changes in financial regulation induced a new set of liquidity providers to arise on financial markets: high-frequency traders HFTs. HFTs differ most notably from traditional market participants in the fact that they combine speed and information processing. We compare a setting with HFTs to settings with traders that only have speed technology or only information processing technology available.

Speed technology by itself will only be adopted when socially efficient. Information processing technology by itself will only generate mild inefficiencies due to a lemons problem. The combination of the two, however, can lead to the implementation of inefficient speed technology or the amplification of the lemons problem.

In the latter case, liquidity evaporates when it is most needed and markets can freeze altogether for periods of time. We also discuss how regulation can prevent such sudden drops of liquidity and how the market may recover after a freeze. Richard Haynes U. Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Esen Onur U. We investigate whether there is a class of market participants who follow strategies that appear to anticipate local price trends. The anticipatory traders we identify can correctly process information prior to the overall market and systematically act before other participants.

They use manual and automated order entry methods and exhibit varying processing speeds, but most are not fast enough to make them high frequency traders. In certain cases, other market participants are shown to gain by detecting such trading and reacting to avoid adverse selection costs.

To identify these traders, we devise methods to isolate price paths—localized price trends and bid-ask bounce sequences—using order book data from the WTI crude oil futures market. Al Carrion Lehigh University. Thibaut Moyaert Louvain School of Management. Ryan Riordan Queen's University. Andriy Shkilko Wilfrid Laurier University. Konstantin Sokolov Wilfrid Laurier University. Endogenous liquidity providers ELPs are often viewed as unreliable in times of stress. This relation is observed for various types of EPMs, including those resulting in permanent price changes and those that occur during the financial crisis.

Discussants: Andreas Park University of Toronto. Shmuel Baruch University of Utah. Joel Hasbrouck New York University. Maureen O'Hara Cornell University. Innovations and Behavior in Household Finance G0. I show that household investment decisions depend on the manner in which information is displayed by exploiting a regulatory change which prohibited the display of past returns for any period shorter than twelve months. In this setting, the information displayed was altered but the attainable information set remained constant.

Using a differences-in-differences design, I find that the shock to information display caused a reduction in the sensitivity of fund flows to short-term returns, a decline in overall trade volume, and increased asset allocation toward riskier funds. These results are consistent with models of limited attention and myopic loss aversion. To further explore the concept of salience, I propose a distinction between relative and absolute salience and find evidence consistent with the latter.

Daniel Paravisini London School of Economics. This paper exploits a natural experiment to document adverse selection among prime consumer credit borrowers in the US. In our setting, some borrowers are offered only a short term loan while an observationally equivalent set of borrowers is offered the same short term loan as well as an additional long maturity option. We isolate adverse selection from the causal effect of maturity on repayment by comparing the ex post default behavior of borrowers who took the same short term loan in both settings. We show that when the long term option is available, borrowers who choose the short term loan default less and have higher future FICO scores.

Thus, a longer loan maturity induces adverse selection by attracting unobservably less creditworthy borrowers. The difference in the default rate of borrowers who choose the pre-existing short maturity loan and those that self select to the new long maturity option is five percentage points, an economically large effect for prime borrowers whose average default rate is 8.

Our results highlight the potential for underprovision of long maturity consumer credit. Hong Ru Nanyang Technological University. We look at the supply side of the credit card market to analyze the pricing and advertising strategies of credit card offers.

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First, we show that card issuers target poorer and less educated customers with more steeply backward loaded fees lower introductory APR but much higher late- and over-limit fees , compared to cards offered to educated and richer customers. Second, issuers use rewards programs to screen for unobservable borrower types. Conditional on the same borrower type, cards with rewards such as low Introductory APR, Cash back or Points programs, also have more steeply backward loaded fees, than cards without these salient rewards.

In contrast, cards with Miles programs, which are offered only to the most educated and richest consumers, rely much less on backward loaded fees. Finally, using shocks to the credit worthiness of customers via increases in state level unemployment insurance, we show that card issuers rely more heavily on backward loaded and hidden fees when customers are less exposed to negative cash flow shocks.

Mitchell Petersen Northwestern University. Justine Hastings Brown University. Institutional Investors and Alternative Assets G1. The corrosive action of the dye itself. Dyes vary considerably in this respect according to their particular composition. So far, it has not been possible to make any general Classification of dyes in this connection, though nitro compounds appear to be particularly corrosive in their action. The presence of impurities in the dye. These take the form of excessive amounts of loading material such as sodium sulphate or chloride, or small traces of iron, the latter having a tendency to harden the film considerably.

A suitable test as to whether a dye has any propensity to produce brittleness is to incubate a sample of film, half of which has been dyed, for about 48 hours at degrees F. If any difference in brittleness is noticeable between the dyed and the undyed portions so treated after the film has been allowed to stand in the air for some time, the dye is unsuitable for tinting.

Except in very special cases, a dye Solution stronger than 0. In tinting, bleeding is of very considerable importance, since, during the periods between rinsing after dyeing and the placing of the film on the drying rack, any drops of water on the surface of the film become more or less saturated with dye, and these after drying remain as spots and irregular markings which are very apparent on the screen.

In making a selection of dyes therefore, it is necessary to choose only those whose propensity for bleeding is a minimum. The rate of dyeing should be only slightly affected by the addition of acid to the dye-bath, although most acid dyes are more or less sensitive to acid. In case the rate of dyeing is appreciably affected by the addition of acid it is possible to take advantage of this fact since a much weaker dye Solution may be employed to obtain a given tint, while an apparently exhausted bath may be revived by adding a small trace of acid.

Only a volatile acid such as acetic acid should be used since this will evaporate on drying, while the strength of the acid in the dye-bath should not exceed. In the case of a bath containing a mixture of dyes, owing to the fact that acid affects some dyes more than others, as the dye-bath becomes exhausted and the acid content changes, the tint obtained will gradually change also.

It is only possible therefore to use acid with any degree of certainty in the case of dye-baths containing a single dye. Moreover, the wear and tear of the film should not be impaired in any way after dyeing, and even after incubating for 48 hours at degrees F. The dye should not be affected by the acid fixing bath since any fixing Solution accidentally splashed thereon, would destroy the dye immediately. In view of the large number of tints required in commercial work, it is undesirable to keep a separate dye-powder for the preparation of each particular bath, but rather to prepare the same by admixture of three or more dyes.

If three only are employed, mixing must be conducted with great precision in order to reproduce any given tint, but this difficulty is removed by the use of intermediate colors. The following six standard dyes have been chosen as fulfilling the above conditions as nearly as possible, and by suitably mixing Solutions of these, almost any desired tint may be obtained. The strength of the dyes may vary slightly from batch to batch, but this variation is usually so small as not to materially affect the nature of the tint obtained from any particular formula.

The Cine Blue dye appears much redder by artificial light than by daylight, especially before drying the film, as do all tints containing Cine Blue. The following formulas are given merely for guidance and should be altered to suit individual requirements. Method of Mixing Dissolve the solid dyes in as small an amount of hot water as possible, and filter through fine muslin.

Pour hot water over any residue remaining, which should only be slight, in order to ensure thorough Solution of the dye, and dilute the Solution in the tank to the required volume at 65 degrees F. Only good snappy positive film may be successfully tinted, since tinting tends to reduce contrast. Except in special cases such as fire scenes, sunset and moonlight effects, and the like, it is very undesirable to employ strong tints, since apart from the displeasing effect and irritation to the eye, the dyes produce a slight softening of the gelatine film when used at 80 degrees F.

Should it be necessary to employ concentrated baths in summer, either cool the dye bath or use a suitable hardener. During the winter months, when it is advisable to treat all film after developing and fixing, with glycerine, the latter may be incorporated with the dye-bath, thereby eliminating an extra Operation. In most cases, however, the addition of glycerine considerably retards the rate of dyeing, so that in order to obtain the same degree of tinting within a period of ten minutes, the concentration of the dye-bath should be increased accordingly.

When delicate tints are employed, the effect is both to remove the contrasty black and white effect, and to add a touch of warmth to the black deposit of silver, even in cases where the highlights are insufficiently stained to be noticeable. The result in many cases is equal to that obtained by partial toning, for example, tint No. Although temperature has little effect on the rate of dyeing with the dyes recommended, when used without the addition of acid it is advisable in all cases to work at 65 to 70 degrees F.

In order to duplicate any particular tint with a given dye-bath the film may be dyed either by time or by inspection. Dyeing by time is reliable if the dye-bath does not contain acid, though if acid is present, in time the acidity decreases, causing a slowing down of the rate of dyeing so that it becomes necessary to judge the progress of dyeing by inspection. If two or more tints of the same color are required, in order to reduce the number of individual dye-baths to a minimum, it is better to vary the time of dyeing rather than to vary the dilution of the bath, providing the time of dyeing for the lighter tint is not less than one minute, which time is considered a minimum for the production of uniform results and for complete control of the dyeing Operations.

The time of dyeing also depends somewhat on the previous handling of the film. Film which has been fixed in a bath containing ordinary, or chrome alum, dyes more quickly than that treated with plain hypo and hardened with formalin. It is probable therefore, that small traces of alum are left in the film even after prolonged washing, which serve as a mordant for the dye. The film samples herewith shown were fixed in the regular acid hypo bath, so that if for any reason the tints indicated are not obtained in the time stated, then either the time of dyeing or the dilution of the dye bath should be altered accordingly.

Should the film for any reason be over-dyed, a small Portion of the dye may be removed by washing for 10 to 15 minutes, though the nature of the dyes will permit only slight mistakes to be rectified in this manner. The baths may be revived at intervals by the addition of more dye, though this procedure is uncertain and it is generally advisable to mix fresh Solution. The addition of a trace of acetic acid 1 part in will revive an apparently exhausted bath though as stated above, it is only advisable to do this in the case of baths containing a single dye.

Before drying films on racks it is advisable to set the rack at a slight angle for a few minutes, to enable the surplus water to drain off more readily through the perforations. If drums are used for drying it is advisable to remove the surplus water by whirling the drum previous to drying. If uniform results are to be obtained, film should never be passed through the projector before either tinting or toning. The twelve tints above are given merely as examples; other tints may be readily obtained by making a trial with a small amount of Solution on a short length of film, taking care to match the tint in artificial light and not by daylight, since any dye containing Cine Blue appears redder by artificial light than by daylight.

When matching think of the tint as being made up of one or more of the colors, red, yellow, and blue. Colors such as orange are made by mixing yellow and red, violet by mixing red and blue, and green by mixing yellow and blue. Browns are obtained by mixing all three colors red, yellow, and blue. When comparing any two particular tints, it is usual to say that one is redder, yellower or bluer than the other, and the two may therefore be matched accordingly.

Almost any tint if delicate may be employed with advantage, though for general use those ranging through pink, rose, orange, yellow, pale green and pale blue are to be recommended; others are for special purposes. It is always desirable to obtain harmony in color, especially when combining tinting with toning, so that the combination is pleasing to the normal eye. Slight bleeding and insufficient squeegeeing when on the drying rack. Always carefully remove any surface moisture from the film with a damp chamois, before drying. This is due to the precipitation of the dye by small traces of alum or iron in the water supply.

In many localities water is purified by adding alum, and only the smallest trace need be present to throw some of the dye out of Solution. This occurs only when tinting on the drum with Cine Scarlet, Cine Orange, and Cine Green, but no inconvenience will be caused if the drum is revolved slowly. Rochester NY, pp. Better than ever. They were frequently confused in the minds — and just as often in the eyes — of even experienced viewers. It would be many years before widely distributed Technicolor and its various competitors filtered across the world. Over the last twenty years, I and my colleagues in the Gamma Group a European interest group of moving film archivists, film laboratory technologists, and members of the FIAF Technical Commission have written and published a great deal of technical information on the origin and practice of tinting and toning technology, and the restoration techniques for silent era film.

It is not my intention to repeat that work in this article, which should be considered an informal introduction to those original texts. As additional information I have attempted to place this information into the context of the relationship between the film makers, the associated film laboratories, and the manufacturers of film stocks and their technologists and researchers.

I spent my school years in Hampstead and my university years in central London, where opportunities to visit the cinema were legion. It was an eerie experience punctuated by the coughs and shuffles of the audience. Several years later, about , I watched a screening of a tinted nitrate travelogue in the Kodak Testing Department theatre at Harrow, an after-thought to follow the screening of a Cinemascope print of Ben-Hur.

A bit of light relief selected by the projectionist for the benefit of my students! By that time I was a Kodak film technologist: I had worked in research, I knew the chemistry, I even thought I knew something of cinema history. I was commissioning Eastman Colour laboratories, teaching laboratory staff to control the chemistry and sensitometry of those early tripack colour processes.

I was also training young science graduates, newly employed by Kodak, who were starting their research careers in film technology science graduates know a lot of science, but photographic technology was, and still is, a closed book to them! My first reaction was to search out some literature on silent cinema, but the only information available to me then was the plain technology of how tinting was done, and not why.

I have since discovered that why can still be contentious. In: Film History , When I started to teach film history in a British Kinematograph Sound and Television Society course in Film Technology in the early s, I discovered that tinting and toning were not easily separated concepts for my students. I needed to demonstrate the difference by using coloured diagrams, as access to original coloured films in the British National Film Archive was impossible.

Later, when teaching film archiving in the s to post-graduate students on the EU Archimedia programme, access to original film was available in the Royal Belgian Film Archive. But I found the most effective method was to demonstrate the process practically in a photographic dish, and show the differences on fresh film. To this day even experienced archivists have some trouble separating tints from tones.

Part of the problem is conceptual understanding, but many original film elements have faded or have altered dye colours, and nitrate film bases discolour and stain both uniformly and unevenly to confuse both the experienced and the beginner. The easiest concept is to understand that the starting point for tinting and toning, and hand-colouring and stencilling, is a conventional monochrome black and white photographic film image. Tinted film has a scale that runs from the tint colour to black; a toned film scale runs from white to colour. In order to distinguish tinted from toned films the best method is to look at the clear parts — for example, outside or around the perforations — as tinting colours the entire film including the perforated edge of the film, except in the case of the lacquering method.

Toning leaves the non-image areas outside the frame uncoloured, although this is not so well defined with some mordant dye toned film, which tends to spread in time or if badly processed. Tinting is the process where the film base is uniformly coloured overall one colour. Thus the black-and-white image remains, and is overlaid with one uniform colour across the entire image.

To see a visual demonstration of this, look at a black-and-white photograph through a coloured gelatine filter; what you will see is exactly the same image as a cinema film frame where the clear film base has been dyed that colour. Tinting, as carried out by film laboratories, is a simple process. Dissolve an acid dye in some water with a small addition of acetic or citric acid to acidify the solution and soak a print in the solution.

Remove after a few minutes, wash the surface dye solution off the film, and dry it. The degree of colour will depend on the dye concentration in solution, provided the time of immersion is long enough for maximum dye penetration. Dyes can be mixtures in order to obtain the required colour. It is not known precisely when uniform colouring of the film stock began to be a component of film production. This uncertainty is somehow surprising, since much has been documented and published regarding other colour techniques in an era when the paternity of a discovery was the frequent object of contention, and competing claims were made by the presumed pioneers of this or that device.

A plausible explanation for the absence of reliable evidence on chronological priority might be that tinting and toning were adopted by different producers more or less at the same time. It should be emphasised, however, that the introduction of tinting was gradual, and without much fanfare. Although anonymous — perhaps simply because not subject to any form of proprietary ownership — the invention spread to all the producing countries with great speed. No statistical analysis of this diffusion has been attempted, but an estimate based on surviving nitrate prints suggests that the technique went through three phases.

The first, from to about , saw the occasional use of tinting and toning. In the second, from to , the uniform colouring of the film base became a widespread practice. The great majority of films during this time were coloured using one or the other technique, or both combined. This period may be further subdivided into two trends — initially, the frequent use of both tinting and toning; later, the slow decline of toning in the years to In the third phase, corresponding to the twilight of silent film, there was an increase in the number of films distributed in black and white, even though tinted films were still common.

The decrease in uniform colouring of the film base is in all likelihood connected to at least three concurring factors: the increasing availability of more sophisticated techniques, such as the first experiments in Technicolor; the gradual introduction of panchromatic film, less suited to the general application of colour than the orthochromatic film for which the techniques of tinting and toning were originally designed; the introduction of soundtrack on film in the late 20s as tinting and splicing would be likely to interfere with the optical cells in the projector.

Surviving nitrate copies of silent films suggest that some form of tinting or toning was employed in approximately 85 per cent of the total production. This estimate does not take into account a practice quite common even in the earliest cinema, that of colouring the intertitles in films otherwise released in black and white. Similarly, Gaumont intertitles were often tinted blue-green. Tinting and toning films became such a widespread practice that some companies produced brochures and catalogues on the subject Plate Eastman Kodak was by far the most prolific, issuing no less than five editions of its manual on the tinting and toning of positive film between and These are works of great historical value, as they contain not only the chemical formulas used to create the coloured baths but also actual samples of nitrate film coloured in each tint and by each technique discussed.

They deal with processes of remarkable complexity, allowing the creation of a vast range of colours that sometimes differed from one another only by subtle variations in density and luminosity, difficult for the untrained eye of a modern observer to identify. B from the early years of the 20th century, by immersing the film stock in an aqueous solution containing the colouring agent;. With tinting, a section of a film was dyed a specific color usually by running it through a bath of aniline dye so that the emulsion would absorb the colorant.

This proved to be manageable on an industrial basis, and by the late s and early s, film stock companies such as Kodak and Agfa began producing pre-tinted positive stocks that allowed labs to print films on colored stock and thus avoid manually coloring them in postproduction. The color of tinted frames would be in its purest form in the lightest parts of the image the areas with the least amount of silver halides in the emulsion such as a clear sky, a white apron, or the highlights of a face.

Yumibe, Joshua : Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick et al. Tinting is a method of applying color to the surface of the film without altering the physical structure of the emulsion. Two details characterize a tinted nitrate print: the entire picture is colored uniformly, and the area around the perforations is also colored. The oldest method of tinting is nothing more than a variation on the hand-coloring technique. Instead of applying the color to a portion of each frame, the whole print was brushed with color.

This method can be recognized by the varying density of the dye on the print. An early example can be seen in the fragment of an unidentified Gaumont film. The distinctive shape of the frame and perforations, as well as other written evidence, indicates that this film may have been produced in late and certainly predates This demonstrates that the first attempts at tinting positive film stock in western Europe were made quite early.

Aniline dyes are coal tar-based synthetic dyes that are water soluble and, unfortunately, light fugitive. Only carefully processed prints would yield a relatively permanent tint. Films to be tinted had to be printed with slightly more contrast. A rotating chassis system, tanks, or vertical tubes were used for applying the color. This last system was thought to provide the best control over the uniformity of the tint. In some cases, it was even possible to provide a gradual transition from one color to another for example, from blue to amber, in order to show the coming of daylight.

Such a delicate operation, however, had to be supervised manually and always remained an exception. Usually, the transition from one tint to the next was abrupt and entailed splicing together two separate strips of film. When tinting was combined with other coloring techniques, for example, with toning or stencil coloring, technical difficulties often occurred.

Since toning always preceded tinting, the process of tinting the film stock could sometimes alter the toning dye substantially. Besides ensuring very uniform tinting, this stock proved to be very stable when immersed in fixing, toning, and mordanting baths. Furthermore, the colors were not altered by the heat and light of projection equipment, not even after several dozen screenings.

An analysis of the surviving nitrate prints shows that tinted and toned prints were far less common in the United States than in Europe. To my knowledge, tinting and toning remained a relatively uncommon technique in the United States until , used only for the most ambitious projects. The exception to this is the production of the Vitagraph Company of America. The co-founder of Vitagraph, J. Stuart Blackton, often expressed his interest in new developments in coloring techniques for film, as is demonstrated late in his career with the films he produced in the United Kingdom such as The Glorious Adventure Many copies of this film exist.

An original nitrate print is preserved in the film collections of the International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House. In: Abel, Richard ed. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, pp. Through the techniques of tinting and toning, color was designed primarily to work not at the liminal edge between screen and viewer but unobtrusively in the background of the image. With these processes, color tended to be used less to illuminate specific foregrounded objects than to craft a radiant world that harmonized the mood of the scene with the emotional engagement of the spectator.

This harmonic approach to tinting and toning is often invoked in the trade press at the end of the first decade of the s. For instance, in an editorial on tinting and toning found in the Moving Picture World, the trade journal discusses the aesthetic potential of these processes:. Toning or tinting, or a combination of both, produces nice color effects which are always appreciated by audiences, especially when those effects harmonize with the colors of the original subject.

In other words, though the indexical bond between a color and its object is severed when reproduced in black and white, its harmonic sensation can be re-created—translated with nice effect—through these applied color processes. A cluster of aesthetic assumptions about color are invoked in this seemingly simple statement about tinting and toning, and it is worth tracing their implications on color design during the emergence of narrative cinema in the first decade of the s.

From various accounts and from the evidence of surviving prints, tinting and toning were first deployed in the cinema in the late s as a quicker and cheaper means of coloring films than the processes of hand coloring and stenciling. One of the earliest descriptions of film tinting can be found in C. Color sensuously corresponded to music and could harmonize with the moods and emotions of a scene. Blending and dissolving effects could be produced with these colored gels to create a variety of effects, such as the gradual alterations of light throughout the course of a day, or shifting color schemes within or between scenes.

A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light , just a bare tint. Griffith, for example, patented a gel-lighting system for Broken Blossoms that double-projected color tints onto the film, and various filmmakers such as Harry Smith have experimented with such effects. Since early cinema their primary use in film has not been for projection, but rather on film cameras during shoots, when tinted color filters are used to balance color temperatures—warming outdoor, natural lighting with yellowish-orange filters when shooting on indoor tungsten film stock, or conversely cooling indoor lighting with bluish filters when shooting on daylight stock.

In its more standardized form, film tinting works by coloring the emulsion of black-and-white film prints with translucent dyes. As detailed in chapter 1, synthetic aniline dyes were the main colorants used for tinting throughout the silent era.


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  • One early method of applying these dyes onto films grew out of hand-coloring techniques and simply entailed using a wider brush than the single-camel hair ones used for selective hand-coloring work and broadly applying the dye over a swath of frames. Though quicker than selective hand coloring, this method tends to produce uneven irregularities in the color to create a pulsating, fringing effect when projected.

    Due to fringing and also to the labor that was still involved with hand-brushing every release print, this method of tinting was not a widely adopted industrial practice. Color produces a uniformly tinted world, in reds, greens, or blues in this process, for example. The simplest means of achieving this for short lengths of film was running the exposed and developed section of film to be tinted back and forth through a bowl of aniline dye.

    In the late s, companies such as Kodak, Gevaert, and Agfa simplified tinting further by producing pre-tinted, positive film stocks on which producers could print their films and avoid manually tinting each release print in the lab. Italics in the original. It is not possible to say with precision when tinting started to be used on film, but since the process was one of relative simplicity it was certainly very early. We have an example in BFI Collections of tinted film from There is a strong relation between tinting and the chemistry of synthesis-producing synthetic dyes directed towards the textile market.

    The same dyes were used for tinting films, and in the abundant literature produced by the film manufacturers to describe this process, complete with formulas and instructions, it is possible to observe the parallel evolution of the tinting process and the dye industry. For example, in the period during and immediately after World War I, the European dye industry was perhaps more developed than the American. The Kodak tinting and toning manual for contains a reference to difficulties in obtaining certain dyes for tinting and mentions the disappointing results produced by the locally-available alternative dyes.

    By the next edition of this manual, in , the problem had apparently been overcome — new dyes had been developed and good alternatives were available in America. The principle of tinting is similar to dye toning, but in tinting the technician uses acid dyes instead of basic ones, because gelatine is normally positively charged.

    These acidic dyes will be attracted, and if the electrical condition of the dye is sufficiently neutralised the dye will precipitate as insoluble coloured matter, becoming trapped and staining the gelatine. Oliveira, Joao S. In Roger Smither ed. Brussels: FIAF, pp. The work on a film of this character must be of great precision and the coloring must be done with consummate care. It is one of the triumphs of motion picture art to be able to accomplish such beautiful things.

    These magic pictures are always attractive and are watched with a greater interest perhaps than almost any other variety of pictures which can be shown. Such pictures are none too plentiful and the addition of another successful one to the list should be hailed with pleasure by lovers of motion pictures. Hand coloring was the predominant technique used to color films during the pre-nickelodeon era.

    When production companies began to increase the length and complexity of their films during the early s, the method became unfeasible on an industrial basis, and other techniques of coloring films—specifically, tinting, toning, and stenciling—grew more prevalent. The current chapter tracks these developments into the early s: through the nickelodeon period and into the single-reel era ca.

    From the fairy and trick genres to melodrama, color was integrated systematically into narrative and nonfiction films during the first decade of the s. An issue central to this change is how the sensual and affective qualities of color usage during the dominant era of the cinema of attractions ca. Even though a change in coloring style is evident, there is in fact not a fundamental transformation in how color was thought of aesthetically during this period. An essential continuity remains pertaining to how color was conceived of in affective and physiological terms, and the stylistic transition that does occur pertains to the restructuring of the sensual address of color for new ends.

    Specifically, color became relatively less obtrusive, pushed to the background of the image, but from this position its sensuality remained and was to a degree even enhanced by its potential to immerse the image and viewer, unobtrusively, into a world of carefully gradated tints and tones. Rather than evolving toward a classical cinema that aims only at telling stories efficiently and unobtrusively, this history recovers the ways in which these very norms were conceived aesthetically at the level of the senses.

    The history traced here through color theory and practice is not in opposition to narrative developments in the cinema; rather, it reframes cinematic narration in terms of its sensory appeals. The use of single color tints and tones has paralleled and intermixed with the so-called natural color processes since the introduction of color to motion pictures. Tinting, the earliest means of bringing color to the screen, was in use prior to The first attempts were handpainted films that tried to produce natural color pictures. In some films only one or two scenes were colored; in others the whole picture was toned a single color.

    Griffith used toned sequences in Birth of a Nation and Intolerance. Erich Von Stroheim used a yellow tone for his symbolic gold sequences in Greed. The popularity of the monochrome prints became so great that the film manufacturers offered Black and White positive film on tinted support in several colors. Tinted Nitrate Base 1. Red 2. Pink 3. Orange 4. Amber 5. Light amber 6. Yellow 7. Green 8. Blue 9. The same colors were also offered in tinted acetate safety base. However, these tints were slightly lighter than the corresponding tints on nitrate base. By the early s it was estimated that during some periods 80 to 90 per cent of the total production was printed on tinted positive film.

    Unfortunately, the majority of the dyes used in tinting absorbed the wavelengths of radiation to which the sound reproducer cells are most sensitive. The dyes reduced the response of the cell to such a great extent that high amplification of the photoelectric currents was required to obtain sufficient volume of sound. This high amplification increased the inherent cell noises and microphonic disturbances in the amplifier so that the reproduced sound was of intolerably poor quality.

    For this reason, the use of tinted film was discontinued entirely in the production of positives carrying a photographic sound record. Some viewers thought that this was a serious loss and that the absence of color impaired the beauty and dramatic power of the screen production. The producers and creative men in the studios agreed with them and requested help from the film manufacturers. Tinting usually means immersing the film in a solution of dye which colors the gelatin causing the whole picture to have a uniform veil of color on the screen.

    Toning consists in either wholly or partially replacing the silver image of the positive film by some colored compound so that the clear portions or highlights remain uncolored. The dye should not bleed when the film was washed and the rate of dye removal due to washing should be slow. The dye should be fast to light even under the heat of projection so that local fading would not take place.

    The dye should not attack the gelatin coating of the film even after 24 hours incubation at degrees F. The following table gives a list of the dyes used, prior to the introduction of sound on film, for tinting or colouring film by stenciling or by hand. The time in solution varied from one minute to three minutes at 65 degrees depending on the shade desired. Approximately 20, feet of film could be dyed per 50 gallons of dye solution. As the rate of dyeing slowed down, the solution would be replenished with concentrated dye solution.

    The amount of light cut off from the screen as a result of tinting depended on the nature of the particular dye used, the concentration of dye in the film and on the purity of color of the dye. Tests made of tinted films indicated that screen brightness was reduced from 25 per cent to 95 per cent as a result of tinting. After the introduction of sound it was necessary to replace many of the dyes formerly used 18 for tinting with dyes that were more compatible with the sound reproduction system.

    The dyes and concentrations listed in the table below were successfully used with the black and white films used for sound-on-film motion pictures. The time in solution was normally three minutes at a temperature of 65 degrees to 70 degrees F. After tinting the film would be rinsed, squeegeed and dried. Approximately 40, feet of film could be dyed per 50 gallons of dye solution. As the rate of dyeing slowed down the bath would be replenished with concentrated dye solution, not by adding acid.

    When the bath became muddy it would have to be replaced. Ryan, Roderick T. London: Focal Press, pp. The expense of detailed hand coloring encouraged pioneer filmmakers to seek a less costly and easier method of achieving color in their productions. As films grew in length, the added cost of applying tints by hand, coupled with the scarcity of skilled artisans, forced most producers to employ tinting, toning, or a combination of these methods to produce the desired effect. Thus, a tinted film will give a uniform veil of one color on the screen.

    Toning differs in that the clear portions of the film remain unaffected—only the silver image of the positive film becomes colored. Thus, in toning, the highlights remain colorless while all half-tones and shadows take on the hue of the coloring compound. One of the earliest attempts at toning was done by an Englishman named Williamson,. An abandoned house sacrificed to the flames for realism was the mise-en-scene of the film. The fire was sensational in itself, but this quality was enhanced by resort to chemical toning to impart a lurid tint to the flames.

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