CROSS POLLINATION

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I get together via telephone once a week with a couple of woman I met through online business. Great brainstorming time. We meet monthly- some months only one or two people have shown up. Good insights. It really is more about people, community, and group innovation than considering all of your knowledge proprietary these days. I look forward to meeting you! Pamela, great post. Of all the blogs I subscribe to — I always read this one. There is always something of use. Thanks for the push. Great post and a fundamentally great concept.

I coach my clients regularly to engage, educate, and emulate as much as they can. And this, of course, leads to an anemic and one-dimensional approach to everything from marketing to managing to client fulfillment. Keep up the great work! I am not impressed with Third Tribe. I commented on a post here the other day to the effect that sometimes I get as much or more from the comments than I do from the post. When the quality of the posts is high and they are, thanks , the discussion just makes it even better. Brendon, I saw your comment the other day and I wholeheartedly agree: the comments section at Copyblogger is just as compelling as the content.

Lots of smart people hanging around who are willing to share their struggles and help one another.

Scaling Up the Knowledge Management Operation

Learning from the birds and the bees — what a clever post! Learning from others, sharing and contributing ideas is indeed great for personal growth, as well as business growth. Truth is, we need each other to survive! So true, the world would never have evolved to its current state without a little cooperation and like minded people forging a path to a better tomorrow. Thanks for sharing Pamela. Some of us who took health coach training together formed a group that continued after the class was over.

When we challenged ourselves to see how we could really help people in February in the pain of the economic downturn, we realized the losses people were experiencing were a form of grief. MasterMind groups can go beyond brainstorming ideas to challenge each other and hold each other accountable.

cross-pollination

Mastermind groups are the best way for solo-preneurs and small business owners to build on the strengths of others without having a huge staff to pay for. I wish that there were more organized ways for people to gather in this fashion, not in large communities, but groups of This is where the million dollar ideas are hatched and this is where every member of the mastermind group can be propped up to help each other succeed. When you are a member of one fo these groups, you can let your gaurd down, because you are all in it to help each other. You are competing against everyone else outside of your mastermind.

You are speaking the truth! My wheels have been turing, I already have three people lined up to be in my Mastermind group. I try to learn from their failures and create a new idea from existing one….. Following professionals from other industries on Twitter is one way I do this. This potentially incorrect information becomes enforced by different people repeating it over and over. Opening yourself up to acquire knowledge from many different sources prevents this happening and keeps things fresh. I think communicating with your competition is huge.

Being in the carpet cleaning business, I was always intimidated by others in my market. After I started talking with them I realized they are just hardworking people just like me and in reality I gained all kinds of insight into the workings of my market place. I also recommend contacting those that have retired from your specific field, they are a wealth of knowledge. This is another great post from you Pamela, thanks! The wealth of information is not solely present in the write up but also in the comments.

I surely learned a lot. I am in constant communication with another company in Lebanon and we share ideas. We learn a lot from each other and business is good for both of us. I urgently need some help with my Business and Travel Opportunities Network— your cross pollination of any ideas about how I can add value for my members and therefore make money for myself will be greatly appreciated. Skip to primary navigation Skip to content Skip to primary sidebar. Gather round, everyone. Birds do it, bees do it The birds and the bees do this naturally, and we can, too.

Get started here First, the obvious sources. Cross-pollinate your business with innovative new ideas by: Reading books, magazines and websites outside your field. Talking to people in different industries. Ask yourself how you can apply their solutions to your own business. Learning from your customers. Look for love in all the wrong places You can find great new ideas in places you never expected, too. Get inspiration from your fiercest competition. Your competitors are fighting the same battles you are. What are they doing that you can learn from? How have they solved the same challenges you face?

What techniques do they use to succeed? Learn from your own failures. The School of Hard Knocks can teach you more than anything else. Look back on your projects and learn from what went wrong, so that you can get it right the next time. Push outside of your comfort zone by learning something new!

Pollination

Here are some techniques: Create an informal Board of Directors. Gather a group of people who are willing to support your efforts. Meet with them in person or by phone at least four times a year. Let the ideas flow, and take good notes. Join a Mastermind group. Many groups meet monthly, some more often. Some Chamber of Commerce organizations coordinate them, but you can also find virtual Mastermind groups with a quick web search.

Join a virtual private community. Authority is a great place to connect with like-minded people and generate exciting new business ideas. Consider working with a coach.

Small business, big ideas We all want a more resilient business, and a lot of Copyblogger readers have very small organizations. Reader Comments 79 Hey Pamela, I do get a lot of great ideas meeting people from different businesses. Chat with you later… Josh. Great post Pamela. Thanks, Dave. Great post Pamela!


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Laura, Surely, if the corporate world continues to hide away from the ever diversifying land of opportunity for much longer then smaller competition will begin to take over. Incredibly good points here, Pamela! Very important individual to have on board. Josh, my Mastermind group has made a big difference in my business. For example, only pollen from a daisy can pollinate another daisy. Pollen from a rose or an apple tree would not work.

P ollination occurs in several ways. People can transfer pollen from one flower to another, but most plants are pollinated without any help from people. Usually plants rely on animals or the wind to pollinate them. When animals such as bees, butterflies, moths, flies, and hummingbirds pollinate plants, it's accidental. They are not trying to pollinate the plant.

Usually they are at the plant to get food, the sticky pollen or a sweet nectar made at the base of the petals. When feeding, the animals accidentally rub against the stamens and get pollen stuck all over themselves. When they move to another flower to feed, some of the pollen can rub off onto this new plant's stigma. Plants that are pollinated by animals often are brightly colored and have a strong smell to attract the animal pollinators. Another way plants are pollinated is by the wind.

The wind picks up pollen from one plant and blows it onto another. Pollinators such as sunbirds enable efficient and orderly pollen transfer between different plants to achieve cross-pollination, which also counteracts infertile self-pollination by insects to reduce genetic costs. A basic characteristic of orchids is a specialized lip that is suitable for insect visitation [17]. The lip of C. These clues are helpful in understanding the evolutionary implications of the bird-pollination mechanism to the plant breeding system.

Self-pollination by insects is aided by the floral lip, whereas cross-pollination by birds is facilitated by the sheathed perch. The species likely reproduce through insect-mediated self-pollination, but the resultant inbreeding depression facilitated the evolution of self-incompatibility to avoid inbreeding. Self-incompatibility necessitates and favors the development of an outbreeding mechanism, an example of which is the perch-facilitated cross-pollination by birds, to ensure reproductive success while reducing the gamete discounting mating cost or waste of self-pollination.

The results and analysis suggest that in C. This finding would be consistent with the hypothesis that selfing is part of a larger process that promotes outcrossing [18] , [19] or, at least, that the two pollination modes can develop into each other. Recently, conflicting selection of floral traits by different pollinators has been thought to be important in the evolution of specialized species [20] — [23].

The selection forces acting on floral and inflorescence traits by pollinators must be closely related to the variation of the traits selected and to the plant reproductive success rate. However, ensuring the successful reproduction of C. Through the addition of sheaths around the axis of inflorescence to make a specialized perch that attracts and positions foraging sunbirds for orderly cross-pollination, C. More importantly, the structure ensures reproductive success. This situation provides a new and striking example of a structural non-floral adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms.

This structural adaptation may shed light on the evolution of multi-flowered inflorescences in a large number of plants. Furthermore, the adaptation of inflorescence structure for bird pollination may represent an evolutionary trend in Coelogyne. Similar sheaths occur in other Coelogyne species, especially in the sections Elatae and Proliferae.

cross-pollination - Dictionary Definition : tapabutijy.ml

The sheaths are found in all members of these two sections at the base of a pendent inflorescence or the apex of an erect one, i. Thus, our findings on C. From March to May of , , and , the flowers and pollination biology of C. Up to 30 populations were chosen for this study, all of which are located in the said low-mountain region, having a subtropical plateau monsoon climate [24]. The forests in the region are dense. All necessary permits were obtained for our field studies. The locations for our field studies were not private lands but protected areas.

Our field observations did not collect any plant, animal, or insect specimen. A total of 10 flowering plants were transplanted into the nursery of the National Orchid Conservation Center of China in Shenzhen. Fresh flowers were collected and observed directly under a stereomicroscope Guiguang XTL, Guilin, China to examine the structure of the perianth, column, and ovary.

Up to 20 inflorescences were randomly selected from 10 populations annually, that is, two inflorescences per population each year. The selected flowers were marked and continuously observed for five days under natural conditions each year. The following items were recorded for 10 visitation of each visitor every year: the number of inflorescence for each visitation, the frequency of visitation to one flower, the time of a visitor spent on an inflorescence, and the number of flowers visited.

Visitors touched anther or stigma were collected for further identification and examination. Five flowering C. Five fresh, unpollinated flowers were cut off from a plant to collect odor samples. These samples were placed in ml headspace bottles. A total of 60 sites were randomly selected for a controlled test of artificial self-pollination 30 sites and artificial cross-pollination 30 sites for three consecutive years from to Up to 20 sites were chosen annually, with each site having eight flowers to 10 flowers. All flowers tested were bagged before blooming.

After blooming but before fertilization, the bags were opened temporarily, and the pollinaria of the flowers were peeled off and placed into its own stigma cavity. Thereafter, the flowers were again immediately bagged. The changes in the flowers and the state of fruit setting were recorded. Flowers from the paired plants at the same site were bagged before blooming.

Overcoming the “Vacuum” of Long Project Cycles

After blooming but before fertilization, the bags were opened temporarily, and the pollinarium of one flower was peeled off and placed in the stigma cavity of another flower of a different plant, and vice versa. As soon as the flowers were pollinated, they were again bagged. A total of 60 sites were randomly selected from to for a controlled test of natural pollination the flowers were not manipulated and bagged treatment the soon-to-bloom flowers were enclosed with a transparent bag to prevent the entry of insects. Each treatment had 10 sites annually with eight flowers to 10 flowers at each site.

The states of pollination and fruit setting were observed and recorded. A total of 10 sample pairs were set up. Each sample had two inflorescences, one of which had its sheaths removed. Hidden in the bushes approximately 3 m away from the inflorescence, we observed and recorded the following data: number of visitors birds and insects of each inflorescence, time spent by a visitor on a flower, number of flowers visited by one visitor, and time spent lingering by a visitor in a population.

To test the effect of sheath removal on fruit setting, 10 sample pairs were set up annually and were bagged before anthesis. The sheaths were removed from half of the inflorescences in each sample pair after blooming. All flowers were bagged after artificial cross-pollination outbreeding , and the fruit setting rates of the two treatments were calculated.

Mating system tests and pollination observations on C. The differences in the pollination effects between C. Two sample pairs were set up in each of 10 populations yearly from to Each sample included two inflorescences that were bagged at the bud stage until all flowers bloomed. All pollen was removed from one of the two inflorescences. Flowers were then visited by pollinators in a natural environment. Both natural fruit sets were counted after anthesis.

Large number of plant clones of C. Multi-flowered and pendent inflorescence of C. Female sunbird on the perch of C. Gas chromatogram of the floral fragrance of C. Number of inflorescences and time s of each visit to a clone by a pollinator. Observation results of pollination experiments on the mating system of C.

Time s of each visit to the inflorescence with sheaths and without sheaths. Rate of natural fruit setting of inflorescence with pollen removed and pollen present in C. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Jan 7. Lilach Hadany, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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Received Aug 5; Accepted Dec 3. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. Figure S2: Multi-flowered and pendent inflorescence of C. Figure S3: Female sunbird on the perch of C. Figure S4: Gas chromatogram of the floral fragrance of C. Table S1: Number of inflorescences and time s of each visit to a clone by a pollinator.

Table S2: Observation results of pollination experiments on the mating system of C. Table S3: Time s of each visit to the inflorescence with sheaths and without sheaths. Table S4: Rate of natural fruit setting of inflorescence with pollen removed and pollen present in C. Table S5: Observation results of pollination experiments on the mating system of C. Abstract Background Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. Conclusions The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination.

Introduction The transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary trends in plants [1] , [2]. Results Morphology of C. Observation on visiting behavior of pollinators After hours of observation during three flowering seasons, the sunbird A. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Sheaths surrounding the basal axis perch of C. Floral odor analysis The aromatic molecules detected in the fresh flowers of C. Measurement of nectar volume and sugar content A bagged flower was observed to produce Tests on the mating system, natural pollination, and bagged treatment The results of our tests on the mating system of C.

Figure 2. Tests on sheath function The fruit set of artificial cross-pollination Table S2 was Figure 3. Visiting number of times and mean duration of pollinators between inflorescences with sheaths removed and with sheaths intact. Tests on self-pollination: effect of pollen removal on fruit set According to our observation, a flower generally withers five to seven days after the removal of its pollinaria. Pollination observations and mating system tests on Coelogyne fimbriata C. Discussion This study describes a new and perhaps a most striking example of a structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms.

Materials and Methods From March to May of , , and , the flowers and pollination biology of C. Morphologic observation The vegetative and floral features were observed in the Huoshaoliangzi Nature Reserve in Malipo, Southeast Yunnan. Pollination observation Up to 20 inflorescences were randomly selected from 10 populations annually, that is, two inflorescences per population each year.

Floral odor analysis Five flowering C. Tests on mating system A total of 60 sites were randomly selected for a controlled test of artificial self-pollination 30 sites and artificial cross-pollination 30 sites for three consecutive years from to Artificial self-pollination All flowers tested were bagged before blooming. Artificial cross-pollination Flowers from the paired plants at the same site were bagged before blooming. Natural pollination and bagged treatment A total of 60 sites were randomly selected from to for a controlled test of natural pollination the flowers were not manipulated and bagged treatment the soon-to-bloom flowers were enclosed with a transparent bag to prevent the entry of insects.

Tests on the function of sheaths around the axis A total of 10 sample pairs were set up.