1918: War and Peace
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In Berlin, the cabarets and beer halls are open while there is still shooting in the streets. In Paris, the peacemakers have assembled to draft the Treaty of Versailles and create the League of Nations. Washington is divided between those who want to open America to the world a In , renowned historian Gregor Dallas traces the transition from war to peace across Europe.
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Washington is divided between those who want to open America to the world and those who would prefer the world to go away. Moscow, still reeling from the Revolution of , is a scene of desolation, but Lenin insists on setting up the Third International. The face of Europe was changed forever and the consequences of the peace in that autumn of would bear fruit twenty years later-when new horrors would await the next generation.
This is a magisterial and compelling study in which Gregor Dallas weaves politics, ideas, social life, fears, and aspirations into a superb reconstruction of one of the great turning points in twentieth-century history. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published September 1st by Overlook Books first published January 1st More Details Original Title.
The First World War Peace Settlement
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Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Jan 06, Mikey B. A detailed and enthralling account of this crucial period of history.
We are presented with an authentic painting of the era — the trenches of the Western Front, the sad anarchy and brutality that reigned in Eastern Europe where the killings continued long after November 11th, Dallas has a unique A detailed and enthralling account of this crucial period of history. Dallas has a unique and sometimes overly meticulous writing style — but from this emerges the conflicted Europe of that period. Dallas handles both the microcosm and the macrocosm very well. Germany, after the November Armistice was unrepentant and as Mr.
In a very real way Germany surrendered but was not conquered — it would take another 27 years for that to happen. And even though the fighting stopped on the Western front, it continued in the East, with Germany involved for several years. This fighting was much more fluid, with constant territorial swapping between various regions. But one gets a graphic canvas of a troubled Europe with many unresolved issues. I found this book better than a previous one I had read by Mr. This book presents well a multitude of European topics and personalities.
Feb 23, Gregory rated it liked it.
The last year of the WWI as seen from five capitals. Robert Gerwarth, a professor of modern history at University College Dublin, looks at the turbulent five-or-so years especially in the center of Europe, between , when World War I ended, and , when peace seemed to come to the Middle East. His account is both important and timely, and obliges us to reconsider a period and a battle front that has too often been neglected by historians.
The standard view of the s has been that they were merely the brief pause before the s and the inevitable slide into a second world war. The peace settlements made in Paris in , in this telling, were so vindictive and so flawed that they drove Germans toward the Nazis and left even victorious nations like Italy and Japan deeply dissatisfied.
Historians have recently been suggesting a more nuanced version, with economic production reaching prewar levels and a sort of normality returning. That hopeful moment came to an abrupt end with the Great Depression, which destroyed the faith of millions in capitalism and democracy and made the alternatives of Communism and fascism seem attractive.
The pressures of the war led to the disintegration of empires — the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman — that had endured for centuries, setting off a scramble for territory and control. Even stable societies buckled. Gerwarth counts 27 violent conflicts in Europe, from civil wars to coups, between , the year of the Russian Revolution, and alone.
The breakdown of society and the ensuing conflicts may have been worse in the center of Europe and the Middle East, but even relatively stable Britain experienced the bitter Irish war of independence and then civil war. Three types of conflict overlapped. States like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Greece and Turkey fought over land and resources; peoples turned on each other in civil wars as in Finland or Russia; and national groups or social classes struggled for dominance.
Increasingly the distinction so painfully established in the 18th and 19th centuries between combatants and noncombatants was breaking down. War was becoming total, seen as an existential struggle of one people or civilization against another.
Attacks on civilians became acceptable. In Russia, Lenin urged his Bolsheviks to hang rich peasants as an example to others. To force the villages to give up their food, his government bombed them and used poison gas. German paramilitaries — the Freikorps — rampaged through the Baltic States under the pretext of fighting Bolshevism.
Women Activists between War and Peace
The Freikorps were motivated by a passionate German nationalism as well as the excitement of conflict. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitary violence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. This volume explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time.
It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace.
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It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-term context and to explain its enduring impact. Keywords: Great War , defeat , imperial collapse , paramilitarism , political violence , revolution , counter-revolution , civil war. Forgot password? Don't have an account? All Rights Reserved. OSO version 0.
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